== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈大宗師〉[The Great and Most Honoured Master] - 8 :
意而子見許由,許由曰:「堯何以資汝?」意而子曰:「堯謂我:『汝必躬服仁義,而明言是非。』」許由曰:「而奚為來軹?夫堯既已黥汝以仁義,而劓汝以是非矣,汝將何以遊夫遙蕩、恣睢、轉徙之途乎?」意而子曰:「雖然,吾願遊於其藩。」許由曰:「不然。夫盲者無以與乎眉目顏色之好,瞽者無以與乎青黃黼黻之觀。」意而子曰:「夫無莊之失其美,據梁之失其力,黃帝之亡其知,皆在鑪捶之間耳。庸詎知夫造物者之不息我黥而補我劓,使我乘成以隨先生邪?」許由曰:「噫!未可知也。我為汝言其大略。吾師乎!吾師乎!齏萬物而不為義,澤及萬世而不為仁,長於上古而不為老,覆載天地、刻彫眾形而不為巧。此所遊已。」

Yi-er Zi having gone to see Xu You, the latter said to him, 'What benefit have you received from Yao?' The reply was, 'Yao says to me, You must yourself labour at benevolence and righteousness, and be able to tell clearly which is right and which wrong (in conflicting statements).' Xu You rejoined, 'Why then have you come to me? Since Yao has put on you the brand of his benevolence and righteousness, and cut off your nose with his right and wrong, how will you be able to wander in the way of aimless enjoyment, of unregulated contemplation, and the ever-changing forms (of dispute)?' Yi-er Zi said, 'That may be; but I should like to skirt along its hedges.' 'But,' said the other, 'it cannot be. Eyes without pupils can see nothing of the beauty of the eyebrows, eyes, and other features; the blind have nothing to do with the green, yellow, and variegated colours of the sacrificial robes.' Yi-er Zi rejoined, 'Yet, when Wu-zhuang lost his beauty, Ju-liang his strength, and Huang-Di his wisdom, they all (recovered them) under the moulding (of your system) - how do you know that the Maker will not obliterate the marks of my branding, and supply my dismemberment, so that, again perfect in my form, I may follow you as my teacher?' Xu You said, 'Ah! that cannot yet be known. I will tell you the rudiments. 0 my Master! 0 my Master! He gives to all things their blended qualities, and does not count it any righteousness; His favours reach to all generations, and He does not count it any benevolence; He is more ancient than the highest antiquity, and does not count Himself old; He overspreads heaven and supports the earth; He carves and fashions all bodily forms, and does not consider it any act of skill;-- this is He in whom I find my enjoyment.'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈大宗師〉[The Great and Most Honoured Master] - 9 :
顏回曰:「回益矣。」仲尼曰:「何謂也?」曰:「回忘仁義矣。」曰:「可矣,猶未也。」他日復見,曰:「回益矣。」曰:「何謂也?」曰:「回忘禮樂矣。」曰:「可矣,猶未也。」他日復見,曰:「回益矣。」曰:「何謂也?」曰:「回坐忘矣。」仲尼蹴然曰:「何謂坐忘?」顏回曰:「墮肢體,黜聰明,離形去知,同於大通,此謂坐忘。」仲尼曰:「同則無好也,化則無常也。而果其賢乎!丘也請從而後也。」

Yan Hui said, 'I am making progress.' Zhongni replied, 'What do you mean?' 'I have ceased to think of benevolence and righteousness,' was the reply. 'Very well; but that is not enough.' Another day, Hui again saw Zhongni, and said, 'I am making progress.' 'What do you mean?' 'I have lost all thought of ceremonies and music.' 'Very well, but that is not enough.' A third day, Hui again saw (the Master), and said, 'I am making progress.' 'What do you mean?' 'I sit and forget everything.' Zhongni changed countenance, and said, 'What do you mean by saying that you sit and forget (everything)?' Yan Hui replied, 'My connexion with the body and its parts is dissolved; my perceptive organs are discarded. Thus leaving my material form, and bidding farewell to my knowledge, I am become one with the Great Pervader. This I call sitting and forgetting all things.' Zhongni said, 'One (with that Pervader), you are free from all likings; so transformed, you are become impermanent. You have, indeed, become superior to me! I must ask leave to follow in your steps.'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈大宗師〉[The Great and Most Honoured Master] - 10 :
子輿與子桑友,而霖雨十日。子輿曰:「子桑殆病矣!」裹飯而往食之。至子桑之門,則若歌若哭,鼓琴曰:「父邪母邪!天乎人乎!」有不任其聲,而趨舉其詩焉。子輿入,曰:「子之歌詩,何故若是?」曰:「吾思乎使我至此極者而弗得也。父母豈欲吾貧哉?天無私覆,地無私載,天地豈私貧我哉?求其為之者而不得也。然而至此極者,命也夫!」

Zi-yu and Zi-sang were friends. (Once), when it had rained continuously for ten days, Zi-yu said, 'I fear that Zi-sang may be in distress.' So he wrapped up some rice, and went to give it to him to eat. When he came to Zi-sang's door, there issued from it sounds between singing and wailing; a lute was struck, and there came the words, '0 Father! 0 Mother! 0 Heaven! 0 Men!' The voice could not sustain itself, and the line was hurriedly pronounced. Zi-yu entered and said, 'Why are you singing, Sir, this line of poetry in such a way?' The other replied, 'I was thinking, and thinking in vain, how it was that I was brought to such extremity. Would my parents have wished me to be so poor? Heaven overspreads all without any partial feeling, and so does Earth sustain all; Would Heaven and Earth make me so poor with any unkindly feeling? I was trying to find out who had done it, and I could not do so. But here I am in this extremity - it is what was appointed for me!'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈應帝王〉[The Normal Course for Rulers and Kings] - 1 :
齧缺問於王倪,四問而四不知。齧缺因躍而大喜,行以告蒲衣子。蒲衣子曰:「而乃今知之乎?有虞氏不及泰氏。有虞氏,其猶藏仁以要人,亦得人矣,而未始出於非人。泰氏,其臥徐徐,其覺于于,一以己為馬,一以己為牛,其知情信,其德甚真,而未始入於非人。」

Nie Que put four questions to Wang Ni, not one of which did he know (how to answer). On this Nie Que leaped up, and in great delight walked away and informed Yu-yi Zi of it, who said to him, 'Do you (only) now know it?' He of the line of Yu was not equal to him of the line of Tai. He of Yu still kept in himself (the idea of) benevolence by which to constrain (the submission of) men; and he did win men, but he had not begun to proceed by what did not belong to him as a man. He of the line of Tai would sleep tranquilly, and awake in contented simplicity. He would consider himself now (merely) as a horse, and now (merely) as an ox. His knowledge was real and untroubled by doubts; and his virtue was very true: he had not begun to proceed by what belonged to him as a man.

== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈應帝王〉[The Normal Course for Rulers and Kings] - 2 :
肩吾見狂接輿。狂接輿曰:「日中始何以語女?」肩吾曰:「告我:君人者,以己出經式義度,人孰敢不聽而化諸!」狂接輿曰:「是欺德也。其於治天下也,猶涉海鑿河,而使蚉負山也。夫聖人之治也,治外乎?正而後行,確乎能其事者而已矣。且鳥高飛以避矰弋之害,鼷鼠深穴乎神丘之下,以避熏鑿之患,而曾二蟲之無知!」

Jian Wu went to see the mad (recluse), Jie-yu, who said to him, 'What did Ri-Zhong Shi tell you?' The reply was, 'He told me that when rulers gave forth their regulations according to their own views and enacted righteous measures, no one would venture not to obey them, and all would be transformed.' Jie-yu said, 'That is but the hypocrisy of virtue. For the right ordering of the world it would be like trying to wade through the sea and dig through the He, or employing a mosquito to carry a mountain on its back. And when a sage is governing, does he govern men's outward actions? He is (himself) correct, and so (his government) goes on; this is the simple and certain way by which he secures the success of his affairs. Think of the bird which flies high, to avoid being hurt by the dart on the string of the archer, and the little mouse which makes its hole deep under Shen-qiu to avoid the danger of being smoked or dug out; are (rulers) less knowing than these two little creatures?'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈應帝王〉[The Normal Course for Rulers and Kings] - 3 :
天根遊於殷陽,至蓼水之上,適遭無名人而問焉,曰:「請問為天下。」無名人曰:「去!汝鄙人也,何問之不豫也!予方將與造物者為人,厭則又乘夫莽眇之鳥,以出六極之外,而遊無何有之鄉,以處壙埌之野。汝又何帠以治天下感予之心為?」又復問。無名人曰:「汝遊心於淡,合氣於漠,順物自然,而無容私焉,而天下治矣。」

Tian Gen, rambling on the south of (mount) Yin, came to the neighbourhood of the Liao-water. Happening there to meet with the man whose name is not known, he put a question to him, saying, 'I beg to ask what should be done in order to (carry on) the government of the world.' The nameless man said, 'Go away; you are a rude borderer. Why do you put to me a question for which you are unprepared? I would simply play the part of the Maker of (all) things. When wearied, I would mount on the bird of the light and empty air, proceed beyond the six cardinal points, and wander in the region of nonentity, to dwell in the wilderness of desert space. What method have you, moreover, for the government of the world that you (thus) agitate my mind?' (Tian Gen), however, again asked the question, and the nameless man said, 'Let your mind find its enjoyment in pure simplicity; blend yourself with (the primary) ether in idle indifference; allow all things to take their natural course; and admit no personal or selfish consideration - do this and the world will be governed.'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈應帝王〉[The Normal Course for Rulers and Kings] - 4 :
陽子居見老聃曰:「有人於此,嚮疾強梁,物徹疏明,學道不倦。如是者,可比明王乎?」老聃曰:「是於聖人也,胥易技係,勞形怵心者也。且也虎豹之文來田,猿狙之便、執嫠之狗來藉。如是者,可比明王乎?」陽子居蹴然曰:「敢問明王之治。」老聃曰:「明王之治,功蓋天下而似不自己,化貸萬物而民弗恃,有莫舉名,使物自喜,立乎不測,而遊於無有者也。」

Yang Zi-ju, having an interview with Lao Dan, said to him, 'Here is a man, alert and vigorous in responding to all matters, clearsighted and widely intelligent, and an unwearied student of the Dao - can he be compared to one of the intelligent kings?' The reply was, 'Such a man is to one of the intelligent kings but as the bustling underling of a court who toils his body and distresses his mind with his various contrivances. And moreover, it is the beauty of the skins of the tiger and leopard which makes men hunt them; the agility of the monkey, or (the sagacity of) the dog that catches the yak, which make men lead them in strings; but can one similarly endowed be compared to the intelligent kings?' Yang Zi-ju looked discomposed and said, 'I venture to ask you what the government of the intelligent kings is.' Lao Dan replied, 'In the governing of the intelligent kings, their services overspread all under the sky, but they did not seem to consider it as proceeding from themselves; their transforming influence reached to all things, but the people did not refer it to them with hope. No one could tell the name of their agency, but they made men and things be joyful in themselves. Where they took their stand could not be fathomed, and they found their enjoyment in (the realm of) nonentity.'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈應帝王〉[The Normal Course for Rulers and Kings] - 5 :
鄭有神巫曰季咸,知人之生死存亡,禍福壽夭,期以歲月旬日,若神。鄭人見之,皆棄而走。列子見之而心醉,歸以告壺子,曰:「始吾以夫子之道為至矣,則又有至焉者矣。」壺子曰:「吾與汝既其文,未既其實,而固得道與?」眾雌而無雄,而又奚卵焉!而以道與世亢必信,夫故使人得而相女。嘗試與來,以予示之。」明日,列子與之見壺子。出而謂列子曰:「嘻!子之先生死矣,弗活矣,不以旬數矣!吾見怪焉,見溼灰焉。」列子入,泣涕沾襟,以告壺子。壺子曰:「鄉吾示之以地文,萌乎不震不正。是殆見吾杜德機也。嘗又與來。」明日,又與之見壺子。出而謂列子曰:「幸矣!子之先生遇我也。有瘳矣,全然有生矣。吾見其杜權矣。」列子入,以告壺子。壺子曰:「鄉吾示之以天壤,名實不入,而機發於踵。是殆見吾善者機也。嘗又與來。」明日,又與之見壺子。出而謂列子曰:「子之先生不齊,吾無得而相焉。試齊,且復相之。」列子入,以告壺子。壺子曰:「吾鄉示之以太沖莫勝。是殆見吾衡氣機也。鯢桓之審為淵,止水之審為淵,流水之審為淵。淵有九名,此處三焉。嘗又與來。」明日,又與之見壺子。立未定,自失而走。壺子曰:「追之!」列子追之不及,反以報壺子,曰:「已滅矣,已失矣,吾弗及也。」壺子曰:「鄉吾示之以未始出吾宗。吾與之虛而委蛇,不知其誰何,因以為弟靡,因以為波流,故逃也。」然後列子自以為未始學而歸,三年不出。為其妻爨,食豕如食人。於事無與親,彫琢復朴,塊然獨以其形立。紛而封哉,一以是終。

In Zheng there was a mysterious wizard called Ji-xian. He knew all about the deaths and births of men, their preservation and ruin, their misery and happiness, and whether their lives would be long or short, foretelling the year, the month, the decade and the day like a spirit. When the people of Kang saw him, they all ran out of his way. Liezi went to see him, and was fascinated by him. Returning, he told Hu-zi of his interview, and said, 'I considered your doctrine, my master, to be perfect, but I have found another which is superior to it.' Hu-zi replied, 'I have communicated to you but the outward letter of my doctrine, and have not communicated its reality and spirit; and do you think that you are in possession of it? However many hens there be, if there be not the cock among them, how should they lay (real) eggs? When you confront the world with your doctrine, you are sure to show in your countenance (all that is in your mind), and so enable (this) man to succeed in interpreting your physiognomy. Try and come to me with him, that I may show myself to him.'
On the morrow, accordingly, Liezi came with the man and saw Hu-zi. When they went out, the wizard said, 'Alas! your master is a dead man. He will not live;-- not for ten days more! I saw something strange about him - I saw the ashes (of his life) all slaked with water!' When Liezi reentered, he wept till the front of his jacket was wet with his tears, and told Hu-zi what the man had said. Hu-zi said, 'I showed myself to him with the forms of (vegetation beneath) the earth. There were the sprouts indeed, but without (any appearance of) growth or regularity:-- he seemed to see me with the springs of my (vital) power closed up. Try and come to me with him again.'
Next day, accordingly, Liezi brought the man again and saw Hu-zi. When they went out, the man said, 'It is a fortunate thing for your master that he met with me. He will get better; he has all the signs of living! I saw the balance (of the springs of life) that had been stopped (inclining in his favour).' Liezi went in, and reported these words to his master, who said, 'I showed myself to him after the pattern of the earth (beneath the) sky. Neither semblance nor reality entered (into my exhibition), but the springs (of life) were issuing from beneath my feet;-- he seemed to see me with the springs of vigorous action in full play. Try and come with him again.'
Next day Liezi came with the man again, and again saw Hu-zi with him. When they went out, the wizard said, 'Your master is never the same. I cannot understand his physiognomy. Let him try to steady himself, and I will again view him.' Liezi went in and reported this to Hu-zi, who said, 'This time I showed myself to him after the pattern of the grand harmony (of the two elemental forces), with the superiority inclining to neither. He seemed to see me with the springs of (vital) power in equal balance. Where the water wheels about from (the movements of) a dugong, there is an abyss; where it does so from the arresting (of its course), there is an abyss; where it does so, and the water keeps flowing on, there is an abyss. There are nine abysses with their several names, and I have only exhibited three of them. Try and come with him again.'
Next day they came, and they again saw Hu-zi. But before he had settled himself in his position, the wizard lost himself and ran away. 'Pursue him,' said Hu-zi, and Liezi did so, but could not come up with him. He returned, and told Hu-zi, saying, 'There is an end of him; he is lost; I could not find him.' Hu-zi rejoined, 'I was showing him myself after the pattern of what was before I began to come from my author. I confronted him with pure vacancy, and an easy indifference. He did not know what I meant to represent. Now he thought it was the idea of exhausted strength, and now that of an onward flow, and therefore he ran away.'
After this, Liezi considered that he had not yet begun to learn (his master's doctrine). He returned to his house, and for three years did not go out. He did the cooking for his wife. He fed the pigs as if he were feeding men. He took no part or interest in occurring affairs. He put away the carving and sculpture about him, and returned to pure simplicity. Like a clod of earth he stood there in his bodily presence. Amid all distractions he was (silent) and shut up in himself. And in this way he continued to the end of his life.

== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈應帝王〉[The Normal Course for Rulers and Kings] - 6 :
無為名尸,無為謀府,無為事任,無為知主。體盡無窮,而遊無朕,盡其所受於天,而無見得,亦虛而已。至人之用心若鏡,不將不迎,應而不藏,故能勝物而不傷。

Non-action (makes its exemplifier) the lord of all fame; non-action (serves him as) the treasury of all plans; non-action (fits him for) the burden of all offices; non-action (makes him) the lord of all wisdom. The range of his action is inexhaustible, but there is nowhere any trace of his presence. He fulfils all that he has received from Heaven, but he does not see that he was the recipient of anything. A pure vacancy (of all purpose) is what characterises him. When the perfect man employs his mind, it is a mirror. It conducts nothing and anticipates nothing; it responds to (what is before it), but does not retain it. Thus he is able to deal successfully with all things, and injures none.

== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈應帝王〉[The Normal Course for Rulers and Kings] - 7 :
南海之帝為儵,北海之帝為忽,中央之帝為渾沌。儵與忽時相與遇於渾沌之地,渾沌待之甚善。儵與忽謀報渾沌之德,曰:「人皆有七竅,以視聽食息,此獨無有,嘗試鑿之。」日鑿一竅,七日而渾沌死。

The Ruler of the Southern Ocean was Shu, the Ruler of the Northern Ocean was Hu, and the Ruler of the Centre was Chaos. Shu and Hu were continually meeting in the land of Chaos, who treated them very well. They consulted together how they might repay his kindness, and said, 'Men all have seven orifices for the purpose of seeing, hearing, eating, and breathing, while this (poor) Ruler alone has not one. Let us try and make them for him.' Accordingly they dug one orifice in him every day; and at the end of seven days Chaos died.

== 장자(莊子) ==
《外篇》[Outer Chapters]
〈駢拇〉[Webbed Toes] - 1 :
駢拇枝指,出乎性哉!而侈於德。附贅縣疣,出乎形哉!而侈於性。多方乎仁義而用之者,列於五藏哉!而非道德之正也。是故駢於足者,連無用之肉也;枝於手者,樹無用之指也;多方駢枝於五藏之情者,淫僻於仁義之行,而多方於聰明之用也。是故駢於明者,亂五色,淫文章,青黃黼黻之煌煌非乎?而離朱是已。多於聰者,亂五聲,淫六律,金石、絲竹,黃鐘、大呂之聲非乎?而師曠是已。枝於仁者,擢德塞性以收名聲,使天下簧鼓以奉不及之法非乎?而曾、史是已。駢於辯者,纍瓦結繩竄句,遊心於堅白同異之間,而敝跬譽無用之言非乎?而楊、墨是已。故此皆多駢旁枝之道,非天下之至正也。彼正正者,不失其性命之情。故合者不為駢,而枝者不為跂;長者不為有餘,短者不為不足。是故鳧脛雖短,續之則憂;鶴脛雖長,斷之則悲。故性長非所斷,性短非所續,無所去憂也。意仁義其非人情乎!彼仁人何其多憂也?且夫駢於拇者,決之則泣;枝於手者,齕之則啼。二者或有餘於數,或不足於數,其於憂一也。今世之仁人,蒿目而憂世之患;不仁之人,決性命之情而饕富貴。故意仁義其非人情乎!自三代以下者,天下何其囂囂也?

A ligament uniting the big toe with the other toes and an extra finger may be natural growths, but they are more than is good for use. Excrescences on the person and hanging tumours are growths from the body, but they are unnatural additions to it. There are many arts of benevolence and righteousness, and the exercise of them is distributed among the five viscera; but this is not the correct method according to the characteristics of the Dao. Thus it is that the addition to the foot is but the attachment to it of so much useless flesh, and the addition to the hand is but the planting on it of a useless finger. (So it is that) the connecting (the virtues) with the five viscera renders, by excess or restraint, the action of benevolence and righteousness bad, and leads to many arts as in the employment of (great) powers of hearing or of vision. Therefore an extraordinary power of vision leads to the confusion of the five colours and an excessive use of ornament. (Its possessor), in the resplendence of his green and yellow, white and black, black and green, will not stop till he has become a Li Zhu. An extraordinary power of hearing leads to a confusion of the five notes, and an excessive use of the six musical accords. (Its possessor), in bringing out the tones from the instruments of metal, stone, silk, and bamboo, aided by the Huang-zhong and Da-lu (tubes), will not stop till he has become a Shi Kuang. (So), excessive benevolence eagerly brings out virtues and restrains its (proper) nature, that (its possessor) may acquire a famous reputation, and cause all the organs and drums in the world to celebrate an unattainable condition; and he will not stop till he has become a Zeng (Shen) or a Shi (Qiu). An extraordinary faculty in debating leads to the piling up of arguments like a builder with his bricks, or a netmaker with his string. (Its possessor) cunningly contrives his sentences and enjoys himself in discussing what hardness is and what whiteness is, where views agree and where they differ, and pressing on, though weary, with short steps, with (a multitude of) useless words to make good his opinion; nor will he stop till he has become a Yang (Zhu) or Mo (Di). But in all these cases the parties, with their redundant and divergent methods, do not proceed by that which is the correct path for all under the sky. That which is the perfectly correct path is not to lose the real character of the nature with which we are endowed. Hence the union (of parts) should not be considered redundance, nor their divergence superfluity; what is long should not be considered too long, nor what is short too short. A duck's legs, for instance, are short, but if we try to lengthen them, it occasions pain; and a crane's legs are long, but if we try to cut off a portion of them, it produces grief. Where a part is by nature long, we are not to amputate, or where it is by nature short, we are not to lengthen it. There is no occasion to try to remove any trouble that it may cause. The presumption is that benevolence and righteousness are not constituents of humanity; for to how much anxiety does the exercise of them give rise! Moreover when another toe is united to the great toe, to divide the membrane makes you weep; and when there is an extra finger, to gnaw it off makes you cry out. In the one case there is a member too many, and in the other a member too few; but the anxiety and pain which they cause is the same. The benevolent men of the present age look at the evils of the world, as with eyes full of dust, and are filled with sorrow by them, while those who are not benevolent, having violently altered the character of their proper nature, greedily pursue after riches and honours. The presumption therefore is that benevolence and righteousness are contrary to the nature of man - how full of trouble and contention has the world been ever since the three dynasties began!

== 장자(莊子) ==
《外篇》[Outer Chapters]
〈駢拇〉[Webbed Toes] - 2 :
且夫待鉤繩規矩而正者,是削其性;待繩約膠漆而固者,是侵其德也;屈折禮樂,呴俞仁義,以慰天下之心者,此失其常然也。天下有常然。常然者,曲者不以鉤,直者不以繩,圓者不以規,方者不以矩,附離不以膠漆,約束不以纆索。故天下誘然皆生,而不知其所以生;同焉皆得,而不知其所以得。故古今不二,不可虧也。則仁義又奚連連如膠漆纆索,而遊乎道德之間為哉?使天下惑也!夫小惑易方,大惑易性。何以知其然邪?自虞氏招仁義以撓天下也,天下莫不奔命於仁義,是非以仁義易其性與?

And moreover, in employing the hook and line, the compass and square, to give things their correct form you must cut away portions of what naturally belongs to them; in employing strings and fastenings, glue and varnish to make things firm, you must violently interfere with their qualities. The bendings and stoppings in ceremonies and music, and the factitious expression in the countenance of benevolence and righteousness, in order to comfort the minds of men - these all show a failure in observing the regular principles (of the human constitution). All men are furnished with such regular principles; and according to them what is bent is not made so by the hook, nor what is straight by the line, nor what is round by the compass, nor what is square by the carpenter's square. Nor is adhesion effected by the use of glue and varnish, nor are things bound together by means of strings and bands. Thus it is that all in the world are produced what they are by a certain guidance, while they do not know how they are produced so; and they equally attain their several ends while they do not know how it is that they do so. Anciently it was so, and it is so now; and this constitution of things should not be made of none effect. Why then should benevolence and righteousness be employed as connecting (links), or as glue and varnish, strings and bands, and the enjoyment arising from the Dao and its characteristics be attributed to them? It is a deception practised upon the world. Where the deception is small, there will be a change in the direction (of the objects pursued); where it is great, there will be a change of the nature itself. How do I know that it is so? Since he of the line of Yu called in his benevolence and righteousness to distort and vex the world, the world has not ceased to hurry about to execute their commands - has not this been by means of benevolence and righteousness to change (men's views) of their nature?

== 장자(莊子) ==
《外篇》[Outer Chapters]
〈駢拇〉[Webbed Toes] - 3 :
故嘗試論之,自三代以下者,天下莫不以物易其性矣。小人則以身殉利,士則以身殉名,大夫則以身殉家,聖人則以身殉天下。故此數子者,事業不同,名聲異號,其於傷性以身為殉,一也。臧與穀,二人相與牧羊,而俱亡其羊。問臧奚事,則挾筴讀書;問穀奚事,則博塞以遊。二人者,事業不同,其於亡羊均也。伯夷死名於首陽之下,盜跖死利於東陵之上。二人者,所死不同,其於殘生傷性均也,奚必伯夷之是而盜跖之非乎?天下盡殉也。彼其所殉仁義也,則俗謂之君子;其所殉貨財也,則俗謂之小人。其殉一也,則有君子焉,有小人焉;若其殘生損性,則盜跖亦伯夷已,又惡取君子小人於其間哉?且夫屬其性乎仁義者,雖通如曾、史,非吾所謂臧也;屬其性於五味,雖通如俞兒,非吾所謂臧也;屬其性乎五聲,雖通如師曠,非吾所謂聰也;屬其性乎五色,雖通如離朱,非吾所謂明也。吾所謂臧者,非仁義之謂也,臧於其德而已矣;吾所謂臧者,非所謂仁義之謂也,任其性命之情而已矣;吾所謂聰者,非謂其聞彼也,自聞而已矣;吾所謂明者,非謂其見彼也,自見而已矣。夫不自見而見彼,不自得而得彼者,是得人之得而不自得其得者也,適人之適而不自適其適者也。夫適人之適而不自適其適,雖盜跖與伯夷,是同為淫僻也。余愧乎道德,是以上不敢為仁義之操,而下不敢為淫僻之行也。

I will therefore try and discuss this matter. From the commencement of the three dynasties downwards, nowhere has there been a man who has not under (the influence of external) things altered (the course of) his nature. Small men for the sake of gain have sacrificed their persons; scholars for the sake of fame have done so; great officers, for the sake of their families; and sagely men, for the sake of the kingdom. These several classes, with different occupations, and different reputations, have agreed in doing injury to their nature and sacrificing their persons. Take the case of a male and female slave; they have to feed the sheep together, but they both lose their sheep. Ask the one what he was doing, and you will find that he was holding his bamboo tablets and reading. Ask the other, and you will find that she was amusing herself with some game. They were differently occupied, but they equally lose their sheep. (So), Bo-yi died at the foot of Shou-yang to maintain his fame, and the robber Zhi died on the top of Dong-ling in his eagerness for gain. Their deaths were occasioned by different causes, but they equally shortened their lives and did violence to their nature; why must we approve of Bo-yi, and condemn the robber Zhi? In cases of such sacrifice all over the world, when one makes it for the sake of benevolence and righteousness, the common people style him 'a superior man,' but when another does it for the sake of goods and riches, they style him 'a small man.' The action of sacrificing is the same, and yet we have 'the superior man' and 'the small man!' In the matter of destroying his life, and doing injury to his nature, the robber Zhi simply did the same as Bo-yi - why must we make the distinction of 'superior man' and 'small man' between them? Moreover, those who devote their nature to (the pursuit) of benevolence and righteousness, though they should attain to be like Zeng (Shen) and Shi (Qiu), I do not pronounce to be good; those who devote it to (the study of) the five flavours, though they attain to be like Shu-er, I do not pronounce to be good; those who devote it to the (discrimination of the) five notes, though they attain to be like Shi Kuang, I do not pronounce to be quick of hearing; those who devote it to the (appreciation of the) five colours, though they attain to be like Li Zhu, I do not pronounce to be clear of vision. When I pronounce men to be good, I am not speaking of their benevolence and righteousness; the goodness is simply (their possession of) the qualities (of the Dao). When I pronounce them to be good, I am not speaking of what are called benevolence and righteousness; but simply of their allowing the nature with which they are endowed to have its free course. When I pronounce men to be quick of hearing, I do not mean that they hearken to anything else, but that they hearken to themselves; when I pronounce them to be clear of vision, I do not mean that they look to anything else, but that they look to themselves. Now those who do not see themselves but see other things, who do not get possession of themselves but get possession of other things, get possession of what belongs to others, and not of what is their own; and they reach forth to what attracts others, and not to that in themselves which should attract them. But thus reaching forth to what attracts others and not to what should attract them in themselves, be they like the robber Zhi or like Bo-yi, they equally err in the way of excess or of perversity. What I am ashamed of is erring in the characteristics of the Dao, and therefore, in the higher sphere, I do not dare to insist on the practice of benevolence and righteousness, and, in the lower, I do not dare to allow myself either in the exercise of excess or perversity.

== 장자(莊子) ==
《外篇》[Outer Chapters]
〈馬蹄〉[Horses's Hoofs] - 1 :
馬,蹄可以踐霜雪,毛可以禦風寒,齕草飲水,翹足而陸。此馬之真性也。雖有義臺、路寢,無所用之。及至伯樂,曰:「我善治馬。」燒之剔之,刻之雒之,連之以羈馽,編之以皁棧,馬之死者十二三矣;飢之渴之,馳之驟之,整之齊之,前有橛飾之患,而後有鞭筴之威,而馬之死者已過半矣。陶者曰:「我善治埴,圓者中規,方者中矩。」匠人曰:「我善治木,曲者中鉤,直者應繩。」夫埴、木之性,豈欲中規矩鉤繩哉?然且世世稱之曰:「伯樂善治馬,而陶、匠善治埴木。」此亦治天下者之過也。

Horses can with their hoofs tread on the hoarfrost and snow, and with their hair withstand the wind and cold; they feed on the grass and drink water; they prance with their legs and leap: this is the true nature of horses. Though there were made for them grand towers and large dormitories, they would prefer not to use them. But when Bo-le (arose and) said, 'I know well how to manage horses,' (men proceeded) to singe and mark them, to clip their hair, to pare their hoofs, to halter their heads, to bridle them and hobble them, and to confine them in stables and corrals. (When subjected to this treatment), two or three in every ten of them died. (Men proceeded further) to subject them to hunger and thirst, to gallop them and race them, and to make them go together in regular order. In front were the evils of the bit and ornamented breastbands, and behind were the terrors of the whip and switch. (When so treated), more than half of them died. The (first) potter said, 'I know well how to deal with clay;' and (men proceeded) to mould it into circles as exact as if made by the compass, and into squares as exact as if formed by the measuring square. The (first) carpenter said, 'I know well how to deal with wood;' and (men proceeded) to make it bent as if by the application of the hook, and straight as if by the application of the plumb-line. But is it the nature of clay and wood to require the application of the compass and square, of the hook and line? And yet age after age men have praised Bo-le, saying, 'He knew well how to manage horses,' and also the (first) potter and carpenter, saying, 'They knew well how to deal with clay and wood.' This is just the error committed by the governors of the world.

== 장자(莊子) ==
《外篇》[Outer Chapters]
〈馬蹄〉[Horses's Hoofs] - 2 :
吾意善治天下者不然。彼民有常性,織而衣,耕而食,是謂同德;一而不黨,命曰天放。故至德之世,其行填填,其視顛顛。當是時也,山無蹊隧,澤無舟梁;萬物群生,連屬其鄉;禽獸成群,草木遂長。是故禽獸可係羈而遊,烏鵲之巢可攀援而闚。夫至德之世,同與禽獸居,族與萬物並,惡乎知君子小人哉!同乎無知,其德不離;同乎無欲,是謂素樸。素樸而民性得矣。及至聖人,蹩躠為仁,踶跂為義,而天下始疑矣;澶漫為樂,摘僻為禮,而天下始分矣。故純樸不殘,孰為犧尊!白玉不毀,孰為珪璋!道德不廢,安取仁義!性情不離,安用禮樂!五色不亂,孰為文采!五聲不亂,孰應六律!夫殘樸以為器,工匠之罪也;毀道德以為仁義,聖人之過也。

According to my idea, those who knew well to govern mankind would not act so. The people had their regular and constant nature: they wove and made themselves clothes; they tilled the ground and got food. This was their common faculty. They were all one in this, and did not form themselves into separate classes; so were they constituted and left to their natural tendencies. Therefore in the age of perfect virtue men walked along with slow and grave step, and with their looks steadily directed forwards. At that time, on the hills there were no foot-paths, nor excavated passages; on the lakes there were no boats nor dams; all creatures lived in companies; and the places of their settlement were made close to one another. Birds and beasts multiplied to flocks and herds; the grass and trees grew luxuriant and long. In this condition the birds and beasts might be led about without feeling the constraint; the nest of the magpie might be climbed to, and peeped into. Yes, in the age of perfect virtue, men lived in common with birds and beasts, and were on terms of equality with all creatures, as forming one family - how could they know among themselves the distinctions of superior men and small men? Equally without knowledge, they did not leave (the path of) their natural virtue; equally free from desires, they were in the state of pure simplicity. In that state of pure simplicity, the nature of the people was what it ought to be. But when the sagely men appeared, limping and wheeling about in (the exercise of) benevolence, pressing along and standing on tiptoe in the doing of righteousness, then men universally began to be perplexed. (Those sages also) went to excess in their performances of music, and in their gesticulations in the practice of ceremonies, and then men began to be separated from one another. If the raw materials had not been cut and hacked, who could have made a sacrificial vase from them? If the natural jade had not been broken and injured, who could have made the handles for the libation-cups from it? If the attributes of the Dao had not been disallowed, how should they have preferred benevolence and righteousness? If the instincts of the nature had not been departed from, how should ceremonies and music have come into use? If the five colours had not been confused, how should the ornamental figures have been formed? If the five notes had not been confused, how should they have supplemented them by the musical accords? The cutting and hacking of the raw materials to form vessels was the crime of the skilful workman; the injury done to the characteristics of the Dao in order to the practice of benevolence and righteousness was the error of the sagely men.