== 장자(莊子) ==
《外篇》[Outer Chapters]
〈達生〉[The Full Understanding of Life] - 5 :
田開之見周威公。威公曰:「吾聞祝腎學生。吾子與祝腎游,亦何聞焉?」田開之曰:「開之操拔篲以倚門庭,亦何聞於夫子!」威公曰:「田子無讓!寡人願聞之。」開之曰:「聞之夫子曰:『善養生者,若牧羊然,視其後者而鞭之。』」威公曰:「何謂也?」田開之曰:「魯有單豹者,巖居而水飲,不與民共利,行年七十而猶有嬰兒之色,不幸遇餓虎,餓虎殺而食之。有張毅者,高門、懸薄,無不走也,行年四十而有內熱之病以死。豹養其內而虎食其外,毅養其外而病攻其內,此二子者,皆不鞭其後者也。」

Tian Kai-zhi was having an interview with duke Wei Of Zhou, who said to him, 'I have heard that (your master) Zhu Shen has studied the subject of Life. What have you, good Sir, heard from him about it in your intercourse with him?' Tian Kai-zhi replied, 'In my waiting on him in the courtyard with my broom, what should I have heard from my master?' Duke Wei said, 'Do not put the question off, Mr. Tian; I wish to hear what you have to say.' Kai-zhi then replied, 'I have heard my master say that they who skilfully nourish their life are like shepherds, who whip up the sheep that they see lagging behind.' 'What did he mean?' asked the duke. The reply was, 'In Lu there was a Shan Bao, who lived among the rocks, and drank only water. He would not share with the people in their toils and the benefits springing from them; and though he was now in his seventieth year, he had still the complexion of a child. Unfortunately he encountered a hungry tiger, which killed and ate him. There was also a Zhang Yi, who hung up a screen at his lofty door, and to whom all the people hurried (to pay their respects). In his fortieth year, he fell ill of a fever and died. (Of these two men), Bao nourished his inner man, and a tiger ate his outer; while Yi nourished his outer man, and disease attacked his inner. Both of them neglected whipping up their lagging sheep.'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《外篇》[Outer Chapters]
〈達生〉[The Full Understanding of Life] - 6 :
仲尼曰:「無入而藏,無出而陽,柴立其中央。三者若得,其名必極。夫畏塗者,十殺一人,則父子兄弟相戒也,必盛卒徒而後敢出焉,不亦知乎!人之所取畏者,衽席之上,飲食之間,而不知為之戒者,過也。」

Zhongni said, 'A man should not retire and hide himself; he should not push forward and display himself; he should be like the decayed tree which stands in the centre of the ground. Where these three conditions are fulfilled, the name will reach its greatest height. When people fear the dangers of a path, if one man in ten be killed, then fathers and sons, elder brothers and younger, warn one another that they must not go out on a journey without a large number of retainers - and is it not a mark of wisdom to do so? But there are dangers which men incur on the mats of their beds, and in eating and drinking; and when no warning is given against them - is it not a mark of error?'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《外篇》[Outer Chapters]
〈達生〉[The Full Understanding of Life] - 7 :
祝宗人玄端以臨牢筴,說彘曰:「汝奚惡死?吾將三月豢汝,十日戒,三日齊,藉白茅,加汝肩尻乎彫俎之上,則汝為之乎?」為彘謀曰:「不如食以糠糟,而錯之牢筴之中。」自為謀,則苟生有軒冕之尊,死得於腞、楯之上,聚僂之中,則為之。為彘謀則去之,自為謀則取之,所異彘者何也?

The officer of Prayer in his dark and squarecut robes goes to the pig-pen, and thus counsels the pigs, 'Why should you shrink from dying? I will for three months feed you on grain. Then for ten days I will fast, and keep vigil for three days, after which I will put down the mats of white grass, and lay your shoulders and rumps on the carved stand; will not this suit you?' If he had spoken from the standpoint of the pigs, he would have said, 'The better plan will be to feed us with our bran and chaff, and leave us in our pen.' When consulting for himself, he preferred to enjoy, while he lived, his carriage and cap of office, and after death to be borne to the grave on the ornamented carriage, with the canopy over his coffin. Consulting for the pigs, he did not think of these things, but for himself he would have chosen them. Why did he think so differently (for himself and) for the pigs?

== 장자(莊子) ==
《外篇》[Outer Chapters]
〈達生〉[The Full Understanding of Life] - 8 :
桓公田於澤,管仲御,見鬼焉。公撫管仲之手曰:「仲父何見?」對曰:「臣無所見。」公反,誒詒為病,數日不出。齊士有皇子告敖者曰:「公則自傷,鬼惡能傷公!夫忿滀之氣,散而不反,則為不足;上而不下,則使人善怒;下而不上,則使人善忘;不上不下,中身當心,則為病。」桓公曰:「然則有鬼乎?」曰:「有。沈有履,灶有髻。戶內之煩壤,雷霆處之;東北方之下者,倍阿、鮭蠪躍之;西北方之下者,則泆陽處之。水有罔象,丘有峷,山有夔,野有彷徨,澤有委蛇。」公曰:「請問委蛇之狀何如?」皇子曰:「委蛇,其大如轂,其長如轅,紫衣而朱冠。其為物也惡,聞雷車之聲,則捧其首而立。見之者殆乎霸。」桓公囅然而笑曰:「此寡人之所見者也。」於是正衣冠與之坐,不終日而不知病之去也。

(Once), when duke Huan was hunting by a marsh, with Guan Zhong driving the carriage, he saw a ghost. Laying his hand on that of Guan Zhong, he said to him, 'Do you see anything, Father Zhong?' 'Your servant sees nothing,' was the reply. The duke then returned, talking incoherently and becoming ill, so that for several days he did not go out. Among the officers of Qi there was a Huang-zi Gao-ao, who said to the duke, 'Your Grace is injuring yourself; how could a ghost injure you? When a paroxysm of irritation is dispersed, and the breath does not return (to the body), what remains in the body is not sufficient for its wants. When it ascends and does not descend, the patient becomes accessible to gusts of anger. When it descends and does not ascend, he loses his memory of things. When it neither ascends nor descends, but remains about the heart in the centre of the body, it makes him ill.' The duke said, 'Yes, but are there ghostly sprites?' The officer replied, 'There are. About mountain tarns there is the lu; about furnaces, the Jie; about the dust-heaps inside the door, the Lei-ting. In low-lying places in the north-east, the Bei-a and Wa-long leap about, and in similar places in the north-west there dwells the Yi-yang. About rivers there is the Wang-xiang; about mounds, the Shen; about hills, the Kui; about wilds, the Fang-huang; about marshes, the Wei-tuo.' 'Let me ask what is the Wei-tuo like?' asked the duke. Huang-zi said, 'It is the size of the nave of a chariot wheel, and the length of the shaft. It wears a purple robe and a red cap. It dislikes the rumbling noise of chariot wheels, and, when it hears it, it puts both its hands to its head and stands up. He who sees it is likely to become the leader of all the other princes.' Duke Huan burst out laughing and said, 'This was what I saw.' On this he put his robes and cap to rights, and made Huang-zi sit with him. Before the day was done, his illness was quite gone, he knew not how.

== 장자(莊子) ==
《外篇》[Outer Chapters]
〈達生〉[The Full Understanding of Life] - 9 :
紀渻子為王養鬥雞。十日而問:「雞已乎?」曰:「未也。方虛憍而恃氣。」十日又問。曰:「未也。猶應嚮景。」十日又問。曰:「未也。猶疾視而盛氣。」十日又問。曰:「幾矣。雞雖有鳴者,已無變矣,望之似木雞矣,其德全矣,異雞無敢應者,反走矣。」

Ji Xing-zi was rearing a fighting-cock for the king. Being asked after ten days if the bird were ready, he said, 'Not yet; he is still vain and quarrelsome, and relies on his own vigour.' Being asked the same after other ten days, he said, 'Not yet; he still responds to the crow and the appearance of another bird.' After ten days more, he replied, 'Not yet. He still looks angrily, and is full of spirit.' When a fourth ten days had passed, he replied to the question, 'Nearly so. Though another cock crows, it makes no change in him. To look at him, you would say he was a cock of wood. His quality is complete. No other cock will dare to meet him, but will run from him.'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《外篇》[Outer Chapters]
〈達生〉[The Full Understanding of Life] - 10 :
孔子觀於呂梁,縣水三十仞,流沫四十里,黿鼉魚龞之所不能游也。見一丈夫游之,以為有苦而欲死也,使弟子並流而拯之。數百步而出,被髮行歌而游於塘下。孔子從而問焉,曰:「吾以子為鬼,察子則人也。請問蹈水有道乎?」曰:「亡,吾無道。吾始乎故,長乎性,成乎命。與齊俱入,與汩偕出,從水之道而不為私焉。此吾所以蹈之也。」孔子曰:「何謂始乎故,長乎性,成乎命?」曰:「吾生於陵而安於陵,故也;長於水而安於水,性也;不知吾所以然而然,命也。」

Confucius was looking at the cataract near the gorge of Lu, which fell a height of 240 cubits, and the spray of which floated a distance of forty li, (producing a turbulence) in which no tortoise, gavial, fish, or turtle could play. He saw, however, an old man swimming about in it, as if he had sustained some great calamity, and wished to end his life. Confucius made his disciples hasten along the stream to rescue the man; and by the time they had gone several hundred paces, he was walking along singing, with his hair dishevelled, and enjoying himself at the foot of the embankment. Confucius followed and asked him, saying, 'I thought you were a sprite; but, when I look closely at you, I see that you are a man. Let me ask if you have any particular way of treading the water.' The man said, 'No, I have no particular way. I began (to learn the art) at the very earliest time; as I grew up, it became my nature to practise it; and my success in it is now as sure as fate. I enter and go down with the water in the very centre of its whirl, and come up again with it when it whirls the other way. I follow the way of the water, and do nothing contrary to it of myself - this is how I tread it.' Confucius said, 'What do you mean by saying that you began to learn the art at the very earliest time; that as you grew up, it became your nature to practise it, and that your success in it now is as sure as fate?' The man replied, 'I was born among these hills and lived contented among them - that was why I say that I have trod this water from my earliest time. I grew up by it, and have been happy treading it - that is why I said that to tread it had become natural to me. I know not how I do it, and yet I do it - that is why I say that my success is as sure as fate.'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《外篇》[Outer Chapters]
〈達生〉[The Full Understanding of Life] - 11 :
梓慶削木為鐻,鐻成,見者驚猶鬼神。魯侯見而問焉,曰:「子何術以為焉?」對曰:「臣工人,何術之有!雖然,有一焉。臣將為鐻,未嘗敢以耗氣也,必齊以靜心。齊三日,而不敢懷慶賞爵祿;齊五日,不敢懷非譽巧拙;齊七日,輒然忘吾有四枝形體也。當是時也,無公朝,其巧專而外骨消;然後入山林,觀天性;形軀至矣,然後成見鐻,然後加手焉;不然則已。則以天合天,器之所以疑神者,其是與?」

Qing, the Worker in Rottlera wood, carved a bell-stand, and when it was completed, all who saw it were astonished as if it were the work of spirits. The marquis of Lu went to see it, and asked by what art he had succeeded in producing it. 'Your subject is but a mechanic,' was the reply; 'what art should I be possessed of? Nevertheless, there is one thing (which I will mention). When your servant had undertaken to make the bell-stand, I did not venture to waste any of my power, and felt it necessary to fast in order to compose my mind. After fasting for three days, I did not presume to think of any congratulation, reward, rank, or emolument (which I might obtain by the execution of my task); after fasting five days, I did not presume to think of the condemnation or commendation (which it would produce), or of the skill or want of skill (which it might display). At the end of the seven days, I had forgotten all about myself - my four limbs and my whole person. By this time the thought of your Grace's court (for which I was to make the thing) had passed away; everything that could divert my mind from exclusive devotion to the exercise of my skill had disappeared. Then I went into the forest, and looked at the natural forms of the trees. When I saw one of a perfect form, then the figure of the bell-stand rose up to my view, and I applied my hand to the work. Had I not met with such a tree, I must have abandoned the object; but my Heaven-given faculty and the Heaven-given qualities of the wood were concentrated on it. So it was that my spirit was thus engaged in the production of the bell-stand.'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《外篇》[Outer Chapters]
〈達生〉[The Full Understanding of Life] - 12 :
東野稷以御見莊公,進退中繩,左右旋中規。莊公以為文弗過也,使之鉤百而反。顏闔遇之,入見曰:「稷之馬將敗。」公密而不應。少焉,果敗而反。公曰:「子何以知之?」曰:「其馬力竭矣,而猶求焉,故曰敗。」

Dong-ye Ji was introduced to duke Zhuang to exhibit his driving. His horses went forwards and backwards with the straightness of a line, and wheeled to the right and the left with the exactness of a circle. The duke thought that the lines and circles could not be surpassed if they were woven with silken strings, and told him to make a hundred circuits on the same lines. On the road Yan He met the equipage, and on entering (the palace), and seeing the duke, he said, 'Ji's horses will break down,' but the duke was silent, and gave him no reply. After a little the horses did come back, having broken down; and the duke then said, 'How did you know that it would be so?' Yan He said, 'The horses were exhausted, and he was still urging them on. It was this which made me say that they would break down.'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《外篇》[Outer Chapters]
〈達生〉[The Full Understanding of Life] - 13 :
工倕旋而蓋規矩,指與物化,而不以心稽,故其靈臺一而不桎。忘足,履之適也;忘要,帶之適也;知忘是非,心之適也;不內變,不外從,事會之適也。始乎適而未嘗不適者,忘適之適也。

The artisan Chui made things round (and square) more exactly than if he had used the circle and square. The operation of his fingers on (the forms of) things was like the transformations of them (in nature), and required no application of his mind; and so his Intelligence was entire and encountered no resistance. To be unthought of by the foot that wears it is the fitness of a shoe; to be unthought of by the waist is the fitness of a girdle. When one's wisdom does not think of the right or the wrong (of a question under discussion), that shows the suitability of the mind (for the question); when one is conscious of no inward change, or outward attraction, that shows the mastery of affairs. He who perceives at once the fitness, and never loses the sense of it, has the fitness that forgets all about what is fitting.

== 장자(莊子) ==
《外篇》[Outer Chapters]
〈達生〉[The Full Understanding of Life] - 14 :
有孫休者,踵門而詫子扁慶子曰:「休居鄉不見謂不修,臨難不見謂不勇,然而田原不遇歲,事君不遇世,賓於鄉里,逐於州部,則胡罪乎天哉?休惡遇此命也?」扁子曰:「子獨不聞夫至人之自行邪?忘其肝膽,遺其耳目,芒然彷徨乎塵垢之外,逍遙乎無事之業,是謂『為而不恃,長而不宰』。今汝飾知以驚愚,修身以明汙,昭昭乎若揭日月而行也。汝得全而形軀,具而九竅,無中道夭於聾盲跛蹇而比於人數,亦幸矣,又何暇乎天之怨哉!子往矣!」

There was a Sun Xiu who went to the door of Zi-bian Qing-zi, and said to him in a strange perturbed way, 'When I lived in my village, no one took notice of me, but all said that I did not cultivate (my fields); in a time of trouble and attack, no one took notice of me, but all said that I had no courage. But that I did not cultivate my fields, was really because I never met with a good year; and that I did not do service for our ruler, was because I did not meet with the suitable opportunity to do so. I have been sent about my business by the villagers, and am driven away by the registrars of the district - what is my crime? 0 Heaven! how is it that I have met with such a fate?' Bian-zi said to him, 'Have you not heard how the perfect man deals with himself? He forgets that he has a liver and gall. He takes no thought of his ears and eyes. He seems lost and aimless beyond the dust and dirt of the world, and enjoys himself at ease in occupations untroubled by the affairs of business. He may be described as acting and yet not relying on what he does, as being superior and yet not using his superiority to exercise any control. But now you would make a display of your wisdom to astonish the ignorant; you would cultivate your person to make the inferiority of others more apparent; you seek to shine as if you were carrying the sun and moon in your hands. That you are complete in your bodily frame, and possess all its nine openings; that you have not met with any calamity in the middle of your course, such as deafness, blindness, or lameness, and can still take your place as a man among other men - in all this you are fortunate. What leisure have you to murmur against Heaven? Go away, Sir.'

孫子出。扁子入坐,有間,仰天而歎。弟子問曰:「先生何為歎乎?」扁子曰:「向者休來,吾告之以至人之德,吾恐其驚而遂至於惑也。」弟子曰:「不然。孫子之所言是邪,先生之所言非邪,非固不能惑是。孫子所言非邪,先生所言是邪,彼固惑而來矣,又奚罪焉?」

Sun-zi on this went out, and Bian-zi went inside. Having sitten down, after a little time he looked up to heaven, and sighed. His disciples asked him why he sighed, and he said to them, 'Xiu came to me a little while ago, and I told him the characteristics of the perfect man. I am afraid he will be frightened, and get into a state of perplexity.' His disciples said, 'Not so. If what he said was right, and what you said was wrong, the wrong will certainly not be able to perplex the right. If what he said was wrong, and what you said was right, it was just because he was perplexed that he came to you. What was your fault in dealing with him as you did?'

扁子曰:「不然。昔者有鳥止於魯郊,魯君說之,為具太牢以饗之,奏九韶以樂之,鳥乃始憂悲眩視,不敢飲食。此之謂以己養養鳥也。若夫以鳥養養鳥者,宜棲之深林,浮之江湖,食之以委蛇,則平陸而已矣。今休,款啟寡聞之民也,吾告以至人之德,譬之若載鼷以車馬,樂鴳以鐘鼓也。彼又奚能無驚乎哉?」

Bian-zi said, 'Not so. Formerly a bird came, and took up its seat in the suburbs of Lu. The ruler of Lu was pleased with it, and provided an ox, a sheep, and a pig to feast it, causing also the Jiu-shao to be performed to delight it. But the bird began to be sad, looked dazed, and did not venture to eat or drink. This was what is called "Nourishing a bird, as you would nourish yourself." He who would nourish a bird as a bird should be nourished should let it perch in a deep forest, or let it float on a river or lake, or let it find its food naturally and undisturbed on the level dry ground. Now Xiu (came to me), a man of slender intelligence, and slight information, and I told him of the characteristics of the perfect man, it was like using a carriage and horses to convey a mouse, or trying to delight a quail with the music of bells and drums - could the creatures help being frightened?'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《外篇》[Outer Chapters]
〈山木〉[The Tree on the Mountain] - 1 :
莊子行於山中,見大木,枝葉盛茂,伐木者止其旁而不取也。問其故。曰:「無所可用。」莊子曰:「此木以不材得終其天年。」夫子出於山,舍於故人之家。故人喜,命豎子殺鴈而烹之。豎子請曰:「其一能鳴,其一不能鳴,請奚殺?」主人曰:「殺不能鳴者。」

Zhuangzi was walking on a mountain, when he saw a great tree with huge branches and luxuriant foliage. A wood-cutter was resting by its side, but he would not touch it, and, when asked the reason, said, that it was of no use for anything, Zhuangzi then said to his disciples, 'This tree, because its wood is good for nothing, will succeed in living out its natural term of years.' Having left the mountain, the Master lodged in the house of an old friend, who was glad to see him, and ordered his waiting-lad to kill a goose and boil it. The lad said, 'One of our geese can cackle, and the other cannot - which of them shall I kill?' The host said, 'Kill the one that cannot cackle.'

明日,弟子問於莊子曰:「昨日山中之木,以不材得終其天年;今主人之鴈,以不材死。先生將何處?」莊子笑曰:「周將處夫材與不材之間。材與不材之間,似之而非也,故未免乎累。若夫乘道德而浮游則不然。無譽無訾,一龍一蛇,與時俱化,而無肯專為;一上一下,以和為量,浮游乎萬物之祖;物物而不物於物,則胡可得而累邪!此黃帝、神農之法則也。若夫萬物之情,人倫之傳,則不然。合則離,成則毀,廉則挫,尊則議,有為則虧,賢則謀,不肖則欺,胡可得而必乎哉?悲夫!弟子志之,其唯道德之鄉乎!」

Next day, his disciples asked Zhuangzi, saying, 'Yesterday the tree on the mountain (you said) would live out its years because of the uselessness of its wood, and now our host's goose has died because of its want of power (to cackle) - which of these conditions, Master, would you prefer to be in?' Zhuangzi laughed and said, '(If I said that) I would prefer to be in a position between being fit to be useful and wanting that fitness, that would seem to be the right position, but it would not be so, for it would not put me beyond being involved in trouble; whereas one who takes his seat on the Dao and its Attributes, and there finds his ease and enjoyment, is not exposed to such a contingency. He is above the reach both of praise and of detraction; now he (mounts aloft) like a dragon, now he (keeps beneath) like a snake; he is transformed with the (changing) character of the time, and is not willing to addict himself to any one thing; now in a high position and now in a low, he is in harmony with all his surroundings; he enjoys himself at ease with the Author of all things; he treats things as things, and is not a thing to them: where is his liability to be involved in trouble? This was the method of Shen Nong and Huang-Di. As to those who occupy themselves with the qualities of things, and with the teaching and practice of the human relations, it is not so with them. Union brings on separation; success, overthrow; sharp corners, the use of the file; honour, critical remarks; active exertion, failure; wisdom, scheming; inferiority, being despised: where is the possibility of unchangeableness in any of these conditions? Remember this, my disciples. Let your abode be here - in the Dao and its Attributes.'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《外篇》[Outer Chapters]
〈山木〉[The Tree on the Mountain] - 2 :
市南宜僚見魯侯,魯侯有憂色。市南子曰:「君有憂色,何也?」魯侯曰:「吾學先王之道,修先君之業,吾敬鬼尊賢,親而行之,無須臾離居,然不免於患,吾是以憂。」

Yi-liao, an officer of Shi-nan, having an interview with the marquis of Lu, found him looking sad, and asked him why he was so. The marquis said, 'I have studied the ways of the former kings, and cultivated the inheritance left me by my predecessors. I reverence the spirits of the departed and honour the men of worth, doing this with personal devotion, and without the slightest intermission. Notwithstanding, I do not avoid meeting with calamity, and this it is which makes me sad.'

市南子曰:「君之除患之術淺矣。夫豐狐文豹,棲於山林,伏於巖穴,靜也;夜行晝居,戒也;雖飢渴隱約,猶旦胥疏於江湖之上而求食焉,定也。然且不免於罔羅機辟之患,是何罪之有哉?其皮為之災也。今魯國獨非君之皮邪?吾願君刳形去皮,洒心去欲,而遊於無人之野。南越有邑焉,名為建德之國。其民愚而朴,少私而寡欲;知作而不知藏,與而不求其報;不知義之所適,不知禮之所將;猖狂妄行,乃蹈乎大方;其生可樂,其死可葬。吾願君去國捐俗,與道相輔而行。」

The officer said, 'The arts by which you try to remove calamity are shallow. Think of the close-furred fox and of the elegantly-spotted leopard. They lodge in the forests on the hills, and lurk in their holes among the rocks - keeping still. At night they go about, and during day remain in their lairs - so cautious are they. Even if they are suffering from hunger, thirst, and other distresses, they still keep aloof from men, seeking their food about the Jiang and the Hu - so resolute are they. Still they are not able to escape the danger of the net or the trap; and what fault is it of theirs? It is their skins which occasion them the calamity. And is not the state of Lu your lordship's skin? I wish your lordship to rip your skin from your body, to cleanse your heart, to put away your desires, and to enjoy yourself where you will be without the presence of any one. In the southern state of Yue, there is a district called "the State of Established Virtue." The people are ignorant and simple; their object is to minimise the thought of self and make their desires few; they labour but do not lay up their gains; they give but do not seek for any return; they do not know what righteousness is required of them in any particular case, nor by what ceremonies their performances should be signalised; acting in a wild and eccentric way as if they were mad, they yet keep to the grand rules of conduct. Their birth is an occasion for joy; their death is followed by the rites of burial. I should wish your lordship to leave your state; to give up your ordinary ways, and to proceed to that country by the directest course.'

君曰:「彼其道遠而險,又有江山,我無舟車,奈何?」市南子曰:「君無形倨,無留居,以為舟車。」

The ruler said, 'The way to it is distant and difficult; there are rivers and hills; and as I have neither boat nor carriage, how am I to go?' The officer from Shi-nan rejoined, 'If your lordship abjure your personal state, and give up your wish to remain here, that will serve you for a carriage.'

君曰:「彼其道幽遠而無人,吾誰與為鄰?吾無糧,我無食,安得而至焉?」市南子曰:「少君之費,寡君之欲,雖無糧而乃足。君其涉於江而浮於海,望之而不見其崖,愈往而不知其所窮。送君者皆自崖而反,君自此遠矣。故有人者累,見有於人者憂。故堯非有人,非見有於人也。吾願去君之累,除君之憂,而獨與道遊於大莫之國。方舟而濟於河,有虛船來觸舟,雖有惼心之人不怒;有一人在其上,則呼張歙之;一呼而不聞,再呼而不聞,於是三呼邪,則必以惡聲隨之。向也不怒而今也怒,向也虛而今也實。人能虛己以遊世,其孰能害之!」

The ruler rejoined, 'The way to it is solitary and distant, and there are no people on it - whom shall I have as my companions? I have no provisions prepared, and how shall I get food? How shall I be able to get (to the country)?' The officer said, 'Minimise your lordship's expenditure, and make your wants few, and though you have no provisions prepared, you will find you have enough. Wade through the rivers and float along on the sea, where however you look, you see not the shore, and, the farther you go, you do not see where your journey is to end - those who escorted you to the shore will return, and after that you will feel yourself far away. Thus it is that he who owns men (as their ruler) is involved in troubles, and he who is owned by men (as their ruler) suffers from sadness; and hence Yao would neither own men, nor be owned by them. I wish to remove your trouble, and take away your sadness, and it is only (to be done by inducing you) to enjoy yourself with the Dao in the land of Great Vacuity. If a man is crossing a river in a boat, and another empty vessel comes into collision with it, even though he be a man of a choleric temper, he will not be angry with it. If there be a person, however, in that boat, he will bawl out to him to haul out of the way. If his shout be not heard, he will repeat it; and if the other do not then hear, he will call out a third time, following up the shout with abusive terms. Formerly he was not angry, but now he is; formerly (he thought) the boat was empty, but now there is a person in it. If a man can empty himself of himself, during his time in the world, who can harm him?'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《外篇》[Outer Chapters]
〈山木〉[The Tree on the Mountain] - 3 :
北宮奢為衛靈公賦斂以為鐘,為壇乎國門之外,三月而成上下之縣。王子慶忌見而問焉,曰:「子何術之設?」奢曰:「一之間,無敢設也。奢聞之:『既彫既琢,復歸於朴。』侗乎其無識,儻乎其怠疑;萃乎芒乎,其送往而迎來;來者勿禁,往者勿止;從其彊梁,隨其曲傅,因其自窮。故朝夕賦斂而毫毛不挫,而況有大塗者乎!」

Bei-gong She was collecting taxes for duke Ling of Wei, to be employed in making (a peal of) bells. (In connexion with the work) he built an altar outside the gate of the suburban wall; and in three months the bells were completed, even to the suspending of the upper and lower (tiers). The king's son Qing-ji saw them, and asked what arts he had employed in the making of them. She replied, 'Besides my undivided attention to them, I did not venture to use any arts. I have heard the saying, "After all the carving and the chiselling, let the object be to return to simplicity." I was as a child who has no knowledge; I was extraordinarily slow and hesitating; they grew like the springing plants of themselves. In escorting those who went and meeting those who came, my object was neither to hinder the comers nor detain the goers. I suffered those who strongly opposed to take their way, and accepted those who did their best to come to terms. I allowed them all to do the utmost they could, and in this way morning and evening I collected the taxes. I did not have the slightest trouble, and how much more will this be the case with those who pursue the Great Way (on a grand scale)!'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《外篇》[Outer Chapters]
〈山木〉[The Tree on the Mountain] - 4 :
孔子圍於陳、蔡之間,七日不火食。大公任往弔之,曰:「子幾死乎?」曰:「然。」「子惡死乎?」曰:「然。」

Confucius was kept (by his enemies) in a state of siege between Chen and Cai, and for seven days had no food cooked with fire to eat. The Da-gong Ren went to condole with him, and said, 'You had nearly met with your death.' 'Yes,' was the reply. 'Do you dislike death?' 'I do.'

任曰:「予嘗言不死之道。東海有鳥焉,其名曰意怠。其為鳥也,翂翂翐翐,而似無能;引援而飛,迫脅而棲;進不敢為前,退不敢為後;食不敢先嘗,必取其緒。是故其行列不斥,而外人卒不得害,是以免於患。直木先伐,甘井先竭。子其意者飾知以驚愚,修身以明汙,昭昭乎若揭日月而行,故不免也。昔吾聞之大成之人曰:『自伐者無功,功成者墮,名成者虧。』孰能去功與名而還與眾人!道流而不明居,得行而不名處;純純常常,乃比於狂;削跡捐勢,不為功名。是故無責於人,人亦無責焉。至人不聞,子何喜哉?」

Then Ren continued, 'Let me try and describe a way by which (such a) death may be avoided. In the eastern sea there are birds which go by the name of yi-dai; they fly low and slowly as if they were deficient in power. They fly as if they were leading and assisting one another, and they press on one another when they roost. No one ventures to take the lead in going forward, or to be the last in going backwards. In eating no one ventures to take the first mouthful, but prefers the fragments left by others. In this way (the breaks in) their line are not many, and men outside them cannot harm them, so that they escape injury. The straight tree is the first to be cut down; the well of sweet water is the first to be exhausted. Your aim is to embellish your wisdom so as to startle the ignorant, and to cultivate your person to show the unsightliness of others. A light shines around you as if you were carrying with you the sun and moon, and thus it is that you do not escape such calamity. Formerly I heard a highly accomplished man say, "Those who boast have no merit. The merit which is deemed complete will begin to decay. The fame which is deemed complete will begin to wane." Who can rid himself of (the ideas of) merit and fame, and return and put himself on the level of the masses of men? The practice of the Dao flows abroad, but its master does not care to dwell where it can be seen; his attainments in it hold their course, but he does not wish to appear in its display. Always simple and commonplace, he may seem to be bereft of reason. He obliterates the traces of his action, gives up position and power, and aims not at merit and fame. Therefore he does not censure men, and men do not censure him. The perfect man does not seek to be heard of; how is it that you delight in doing so?'

孔子曰:「善哉!」辭其交遊,去其弟子,逃於大澤;衣裘褐,食杼栗;入獸不亂群,入鳥不亂行。鳥獸不惡,而況人乎!

Confucius said, 'Excellent;' and thereupon he took leave of his associates, forsook his disciples, retired to the neighbourhood of a great marsh, wore skins and hair cloth, and ate acorns and chestnuts. He went among animals without causing any confusion among their herds, and among birds without troubling their movements. Birds and beasts did not dislike him; how much less would men do so!

== 장자(莊子) ==
《外篇》[Outer Chapters]
〈山木〉[The Tree on the Mountain] - 5 :
孔子問子桑雽曰:「吾再逐於魯,伐樹於宋,削跡於衛,窮於商、周,圍於陳、蔡之間。吾犯此數患,親交益疏,徒友益散,何與?」

Confucius asked Zi-sang Hu, saying, 'I was twice driven from Lu; the tree was felled over me in Song; I was obliged to disappear from Wei; I was reduced to extreme distress in Shang and Zhou; and I was kept in a state of siege between Chen and Cai. I have encountered these various calamities; my intimate associates are removed from me more and more; my followers and friends are more and more dispersed - why have all these things befallen me?'

子桑雽曰:「子獨不聞假人之亡與?林回棄千金之璧,負赤子而趨。或曰:『為其布與?赤子之布寡矣。為其累與?赤子之累多矣。棄千金之璧,負赤子而趨,何也?』林回曰:『彼以利合,此以天屬也。』夫以利合者,迫窮禍患害相棄也;以天屬者,迫窮禍患害相收也。夫相收之與相棄亦遠矣。且君子之交淡若水,小人之交甘若醴;君子淡以親,小人甘以絕。彼無故以合者,則無故以離。」

Zi-sang Hu replied, 'Have you not heard of the flight of Lin Hui of Jia - how he abandoned his round jade symbol of rank, worth a thousand pieces of silver, and hurried away with his infant son on his back? If it be asked, "Was it because of the market value of the child?" But that value was small (compared with the value of the jade token). If it be asked again, "Was it because of the troubles (of his office)?" But the child would occasion him much more trouble. Why was it then that, abandoning the jade token, worth a thousand pieces of silver, he hurried away with the child on his back? Lin Hui (himself) said, "The union between me and the token rested on the ground of gain; that between me and the child was of Heaven's appointment." Where the bond of union is its profitableness, when the pressure of poverty, calamity, distress, and injury come, the parties abandon one another; when it is of Heaven's appointment, they hold in the same circumstances to one another. Now between abandoning one another, and holding to one another, the difference is great. Moreover, the intercourse of superior men is tasteless as water, while that of mean men is sweet as new wine. But the tastelessness of the superior men leads on to affection, and the sweetness of the mean men to aversion. The union which originates without any cause will end in separation without any cause.'

孔子曰:「敬聞命矣。」徐行翔佯而歸,絕學捐書,弟子無挹於前,其愛益加進。

Confucius said, 'I have reverently received your instructions.' And hereupon, with a slow step and an assumed air of ease, he returned to his own house. There he made an end of studying and put away his books. His disciples came no more to make their bow to him (and be taught), but their affection for him increased the more.

異日,桑雽又曰:「舜之將死,真泠禹曰:『汝戒之哉!形莫若緣,情莫若率。緣則不離,率則不勞;不離不勞,則不求文以待形;不求文以待形,固不待物。』」

Another day Sang Hu said further to him, 'When Shun was about to die, he charged Yu, saying, 'Be upon your guard. (The attraction of) the person is not like that of sympathy; the (power of) affection is not like the leading (of example). Where there is sympathy, there will not be separation; where there is (the leading of) example, there will be no toil. Where there is neither separation nor toil, you will not have to seek the decoration of forms to make the person attractive, and where there is no such need of those forms, there will certainly be none for external things.'