== 장자(莊子) ==
《外篇》[Outer Chapters]
〈天運〉[The Revolution of Heaven] - 3 :
北門成問於黃帝曰:帝張咸池之樂於洞庭之野,吾始聞之懼,復聞之怠,卒聞之而惑,蕩蕩默默,乃不自得。」

Bei-men Cheng asked Huang-Di, saying, 'You were celebrating, O Di, a performance of the music of the Xian-chi, in the open country near the Dong-ting lake. When I heard the first part of it, I was afraid; the next made me weary; and the last perplexed me. I became agitated and unable to speak, and lost my self-possession.'

帝曰:「女殆其然哉!吾奏之以人,徵之以天,行之以禮義,建之以太清。夫至樂者,先應之以人事,順之以天理,行之以五德,應之以自然,然後調理四時,太和萬物。四時迭起,萬物循生;一盛一衰,文武倫經;一清一濁,陰陽調和,流光其聲;蟄蟲始作,吾驚之以雷霆;其卒無尾,其始無首;一死一生,一僨一起;所常無窮,而一不可待。女故懼也。

The Di said, 'It was likely that it should so affect you! It was performed with (the instruments of) men, and all attuned according to (the influences of) Heaven. It proceeded according to (the principles of) propriety and righteousness, and was pervaded by (the idea of) the Grand Purity. The Perfect Music first had its response in the affairs of men, and was conformed to the principles of Heaven; it indicated the action of the five virtues, and corresponded to the spontaneity (apparent in nature). After this it showed the blended distinctions of the four seasons, and the grand harmony of all things - the succession of those seasons one after another, and the production of things in their proper order. Now it swelled, and now it died away, its peaceful and military strains clearly distinguished and given forth. Now it was clear, and now rough, as if the contracting and expanding of the elemental processes blended harmoniously (in its notes). Those notes then flowed away in waves of light, till, as when the hibernating insects first begin to move, I commanded the terrifying crash of thunder. Its end was marked by no formal conclusion, and it began again without any prelude. It seemed to die away, and then it burst into life; it came to a close, and then it rose again. So it went on regularly and inexhaustibly, and without the intervention of any pause: it was this which made you afraid.

吾又奏之以陰陽之和,燭之以日月之明;其聲能短能長,能柔能剛;變化齊一,不主故常;在谷滿谷,在阬滿阬;塗郤守神,以物為量。其聲揮綽,其名高明。是故鬼神守其幽,日月星辰行其紀。吾止之於有窮,流之於無止。予欲慮之而不能知也,望之而不能見也,逐之而不能及也,儻然立於四虛之道,倚於槁梧而吟。目知窮乎所欲見,力屈乎所欲逐,吾既不及已夫!形充空虛,乃至委蛇。汝委蛇,故怠。

'In the second part (of the performance), I made it describe the harmony of the Yin and Yang, and threw round it the brilliance of the sun and moon. Its notes were now short and now long, now soft and now hard. Their changes, however, were marked by an unbroken unity, though not dominated by a fixed regularity. They filled every valley and ravine; you might shut up every crevice, and guard your spirit (against their entrance), yet there was nothing but gave admission to them. Yea, those notes resounded slowly, and might have been pronounced high and clear. Hence the shades of the dead kept in their obscurity; the sun and moon, and all the stars of the zodiac, pursued their several courses. I made (my instruments) leave off, when (the performance) came to an end, and their (echoes) flowed on without stopping. You thought anxiously about it, and were not able to understand it; you looked for it, and were not able to see it; you pursued it, and were not able to reach it. All-amazed, you stood in the way all open around you, and then you leant against an old rotten dryandra-tree and hummed. The power of your eyes was exhausted by what you wished to see; your strength failed in your desire to pursue it, while I myself could not reach it. Your body was but so much empty vacancy while you endeavoured to retain your self-possession: it was that endeavour which made you weary.

吾又奏之以無怠之聲,調之以自然之命,故若混逐叢生,林樂而無形;布揮而不曳,幽昏而無聲。動於無方,居於窈冥;或謂之死,或謂之生;或謂之實,或謂之榮;行流散徙,不主常聲。世疑之,稽於聖人。聖也者,達於情而遂於命也。天機不張而五官皆備,此之謂天樂,無言而心說。故有焱氏為之頌曰:『聽之不聞其聲,視之不見其形,充滿天地,苞裏六極。』汝欲聽之而無接焉,而故惑也。

'In the last part (of the performance), I employed notes which did not have that wearying effect. I blended them together as at the command of spontaneity. Hence they came as if following one another in confusion, like a clump of plants springing from one root, or like the music of a forest produced by no visible form. They spread themselves all around without leaving a trace (of their cause); and seemed to issue from deep obscurity where there was no sound. Their movements came from nowhere; their home was in the deep darkness - conditions which some would call death, and some would call life; some would call the fruit, and some would call (merely) the flower. Those notes, moving and flowing on, separating and shifting, and not following any regular sounds, the world might well have doubts about them, and refer them to the judgment of a sage, for the sages understand the nature of this music, and judge in accordance with the prescribed (spontaneity). While the spring of that spontaneity has not been touched, and yet the regulators of the five notes are all prepared - this is what is called the music of Heaven, delighting the mind without the use of words. Hence it is said in the eulogy of the Lord of Yan, "You listen for it, and do not hear its sound; you look for it, and do not perceive its form; it fills heaven and earth; it envelopes all within the universe." You wished to hear it, but could not take it in; and therefore you were perplexed.

樂也者,始於懼,懼故祟;吾又次之以怠,怠故遁;卒之於惑,惑故愚;愚故道,道可載而與之俱也。」

'I performed first the music calculated to awe; and you were frightened as if by a ghostly visitation. I followed it with that calculated to weary; and in your weariness you would have withdrawn. I concluded with that calculated to perplex; and in your perplexity you felt your stupidity. But that stupidity is akin to the Dao; you may with it convey the Dao in your person, and have it (ever) with you.'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《外篇》[Outer Chapters]
〈天運〉[The Revolution of Heaven] - 4 :
孔子西遊於衛。顏淵問師金,曰:「以夫子之行為奚如?」師金曰:「惜乎,而夫子其窮哉!」顏淵曰:「何也?」師金曰:「夫芻狗之未陳也,盛以篋衍,巾以文繡,尸祝齊戒以將之;及其已陳也,行者踐其首脊,蘇者取而爨之而已。將復取而盛以篋衍,巾以文繡,遊居寢臥其下,彼不得夢,必且數眯焉。今而夫子,亦取先王已陳芻狗,聚弟子游居寢臥其下。故伐樹於宋,削跡於衛,窮於商、周,是非其夢邪?圍於陳、蔡之間,七日不火食,死生相與鄰,是非其眯邪?

When Confucius was travelling in the west in Wei, Yan Yuan asked the music-master Jin, saying, 'How is it, do you think, with the course of the Master?' The music-master replied, 'Alas! it is all over with your Master!' 'How so?' asked Yan Yuan; and the other said, 'Before the grass-dogs are set forth (at the sacrifice), they are deposited in a box or basket, and wrapt up with elegantly embroidered cloths, while the representative of the dead and the officer of prayer prepare themselves by fasting to present them. After they have been set forth, however, passers-by trample on their heads and backs, and the grass-cutters take and burn them in cooking. That is all they are good for. If one should again take them, replace them in the box or basket, wrap them up with embroidered cloths, and then in rambling, or abiding at the spot, should go to sleep under them, if he do not get (evil) dreams, he is sure to be often troubled with the nightmare. Now here is your Master in the same way taking the grass-dogs, presented by the ancient kings, and leading his disciples to wander or abide and sleep under them. Owing to this, the tree (beneath which they were practising ceremonies) in Sung was cut down; he was obliged to leave Wei; he was reduced to extremities in Shang and Zhou: were not those experiences like having (evil) dreams? He was kept in a state of siege between Chen and Cai, so that for seven days he had no cooked food to eat, and was in a situation between life and death: were not those experiences like the nightmare?

夫水行莫如用舟,而陸行莫如用車。以舟之可行於水也而求推之於陸,則沒世不行尋常。古今非水陸與?周、魯非舟車與?今蘄行周於魯,是猶推舟於陸也,勞而無功,身必有殃。彼未知夫無方之傳,應物而不窮者也。

'If you are travelling by water, your best plan is to use a boat; if by land, a carriage. Take a boat, which will go (easily) along on the water, and try to push it along on the land, and all your lifetime it will not go so much as a fathom or two: are not ancient time and the present time like the water and the dry land? and are not Zhou and Lu like the boat and the carriage? To seek now to practise (the old ways of) Zhou in Lu is like pushing along a boat on the dry land. It is only a toilsome labour, and has no success; he who does so is sure to meet with calamity. He has not learned that in handing down the arts (of one time) he is sure to be reduced to extremity in endeavouring to adapt them to the conditions (of another).

且子獨不見夫桔槔者乎?引之則俯,舍之則仰。彼,人之所引,非引人也,故俯仰而不得罪於人。故夫三皇、五帝之禮義法度,不矜於同而矜於治。故譬三皇、五帝之禮義法度,其猶柤梨橘柚邪!其味相反,而皆可於口。

'And have you not seen the working of a shadoof? When (the rope of) it is pulled, it bends down; and when it is let go, it rises up. It is pulled by a man, and does not pull the man; and so, whether it bends down or rises up, it commits no offence against the man. In the same way the rules of propriety, righteousness, laws, and measures of the three Huangs and five Dis derived their excellence, not from their being the same as those of the present day, but from their (aptitude for) government. We may compare them to haws, pears, oranges, and pummeloes, which are different in flavour, but all suitable to be eaten.

故禮義法度者,應時而變者也。今取猨狙而衣以周公之服,彼必齕齧挽裂,盡去而後慊。觀古今之異,猶猨狙之異乎周公也。故西施病心而矉其里,其里之醜人見而美之,歸亦捧心而矉其里。其里之富人見之,堅閉門而不出;貧人見之,挈妻子而去之走。彼知矉美而不知矉之所以美。惜乎!而夫子其窮哉!」

'Just so it is that the rules of propriety, righteousness, laws, and measures, change according to the time. If now you take a monkey, and dress it in the robes of the duke of Zhou, it will bite and tear them, and will not be satisfied till it has got rid of them altogether. And if you look at the difference between antiquity and the present time it is as great as that between the monkey and the duke of Zhou. In the same way, when Xi Shi was troubled in mind, she would knit her brows and frown on all in her neighbourhood. An ugly woman of the neighbourhood, seeing and admiring her beauty, went home, and also laying her hands on her heart proceeded to stare and frown on all around her. When the rich people of the village saw her, they shut fast their doors and would not go out; when the poor people saw her, they took their wives and children and ran away from her. The woman knew how to admire the frowning beauty, but she did not know how it was that she, though frowning, was beautiful. Alas! it is indeed all over with your Master!'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《外篇》[Outer Chapters]
〈天運〉[The Revolution of Heaven] - 5 :
孔子行年五十有一而不聞道,乃南之沛,見老聃。老聃曰:「子來乎?吾聞子北方之賢者也,子亦得道乎?」孔子曰:「未得也。」老子曰:「子惡乎求之哉?」曰:「吾求之於度數,五年而未得也。」老子曰:「子又惡乎求之哉?」曰:「吾求之於陰陽,十有二年而未得。」

When Confucius was in his fifty-first year, he had not heard of the Dao, and went south to Pei to see Lao Dan, who said to him, 'You have come, Sir; have you? I have heard that you are the wisest man of the North; have you also got the Dao?' 'Not yet,' was the reply; and the other went on, 'How have you sought it?' Confucius said, 'I sought it in measures and numbers, and after five years I had not got it.' 'And how then did you seek it?' 'I sought it in the Yin and Yang, and after twelve years I have not found it.'

老子曰:「然。使道而可獻,則人莫不獻之於其君;使道而可進,則人莫不進之於其親;使道而可以告人,則人莫不告其兄弟;使道而可以與人,則人莫不與其子孫。然而不可者,無佗也,中無主而不止,外無正而不行。由中出者,不受於外,聖人不出;由外入者,無主於中,聖人不隱。名,公器也,不可多取。仁義,先王之蘧廬也,止可以一宿而不可以久處,覯而多責。古之至人,假道於仁,託宿於義,以遊逍遙之虛,食於苟簡之田,立於不貸之圃。逍遙,無為也;苟簡,易養也;不貸,無出也。古者謂是采真之遊。

Laozi said, 'Just so! If the Dao could be presented (to another), men would all present it to their rulers; if it could be served up (to others), men would all serve it up to their parents; if it could be told (to others), men would all tell it to their brothers; if it could be given to others, men would all give it to their sons and grandsons. The reason why it cannot be transmitted is no other but this - that if, within, there be not the presiding principle, it will not remain there, and if, outwardly, there be not the correct obedience, it will not be carried out. When that which is given out from the mind (in possession of it) is not received by the mind without, the sage will not give it out; and when, entering in from without, there is no power in the receiving mind to entertain it, the sage will not permit it to lie hid there. Fame is a possession common to all; we should not seek to have much of it. Benevolence and righteousness were as the lodging-houses of the former kings; we should only rest in them for a night, and not occupy them for long. If men see us doing so, they will have much to say against us. The perfect men of old trod the path of benevolence as a path which they borrowed for the occasion, and dwelt in Righteousness as in a lodging which they used for a night. Thus they rambled in the vacancy of Untroubled Ease, found their food in the fields of Indifference, and stood in the gardens which they had not borrowed. Untroubled Ease requires the doing of nothing; Indifference is easily supplied with nourishment; not borrowing needs no outlay. The ancients called this the Enjoyment that Collects the True.

以富為是者,不能讓祿;以顯為是者,不能讓名;親權者,不能與人柄。操之則慄,舍之則悲,而一無所鑒,以闚其所不休者,是天之戮民也。怨、恩、取、與、諫、教、生、殺,八者,正之器也,唯循大變無所湮者,為能用之。故曰:正者,正也。其心以為不然者,天門弗開矣。」

'Those who think that wealth is the proper thing for them cannot give up their revenues; those who seek distinction cannot give up the thought of fame; those who cleave to power cannot give the handle of it to others. While they hold their grasp of those things, they are afraid (of losing them). When they let them go, they are grieved; and they will not look at a single example, from which they might perceive the (folly) of their restless pursuits: such men are under the doom of Heaven. Hatred and kindness; taking and giving; reproof and instruction; death and life: these eight things are instruments of rectification, but only those are able to use them who do not obstinately refuse to comply with their great changes. Hence it is said, "Correction is Rectification." When the minds of some do not acknowledge this, it is because the gate of Heaven (in them) has not been opened.'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《外篇》[Outer Chapters]
〈天運〉[The Revolution of Heaven] - 6 :
孔子見老聃而語仁義。老聃曰:「夫播穅眯目,則天地四方易位矣;蚊虻噆膚,則通昔不寐矣。夫仁義憯然,乃憤吾心,亂莫大焉。吾子使天下無失其朴,吾子亦放風而動,總德而立矣,又奚傑然若負建鼓而求亡子者邪?夫鵠不日浴而白,烏不日黔而黑。黑白之朴,不足以為辯;名譽之觀,不足以為廣。泉涸,魚相與處於陸,相呴以溼,相濡以沫,不若相忘於江湖。」

At an interview with Lao Dan, Confucius spoke to him of benevolence and righteousness. Lao Dan said, 'If you winnow chaff, and the dust gets into your eyes, then the places of heaven and earth and of the four cardinal points are all changed to you. If musquitoes or gadflies puncture your skin, it will keep you all the night from sleeping. But this painful iteration of benevolence and righteousness excites my mind and produces in it the greatest confusion. If you, Sir, would cause men not to lose their natural simplicity, and if you would also imitate the wind in its (unconstrained) movements, and stand forth in all the natural attributes belonging to you!-- why must you use so much energy, and carry a great drum to seek for the son whom you have lost? The snow-goose does not bathe every day to make itself white, nor the crow blacken itself every day to make itself black. The natural simplicity of their black and white does not afford any ground for controversy; and the fame and praise which men like to contemplate do not make them greater than they naturally are. When the springs (supplying the pools) are dried up, the fishes huddle together on the dry land. Than that they should moisten one another there by their gasping, and keep one another wet by their milt, it would be better for them to forget one another in the rivers and lakes.'

孔子見老聃歸,三日不談。弟子問曰:「夫子見老聃,亦將何歸哉?」孔子曰:「吾乃今於是乎見龍。龍合而成體,散而成章,乘乎雲氣而養乎陰陽。予口張而不能嗋,予又何規老聃哉!」子貢曰:「然則人固有尸居而龍見,雷聲而淵默,發動如天地者乎?賜亦可得而觀乎?」遂以孔子聲見老聃。

From this interview with Lao Dan, Confucius returned home, and for three days did not speak. His disciples (then) asked him, saying, 'Master, you have seen Lao Dan; in what way might you admonish and correct him?' Confucius said, 'In him (I may say) that I have now seen the dragon. The dragon coils itself up, and there is its body; it unfolds itself and becomes the dragon complete. It rides on the cloudy air, and is nourished by the Yin and Yang. I kept my mouth open, and was unable to shut it - how could I admonish and correct Lao Dan?' Zi-gong said, 'So then, can (this) man indeed sit still as a representative of the dead, and then appear as the dragon? Can his voice resound as thunder, when he is profoundly still? Can he exhibit himself in his movements like heaven and earth? May I, Ci, also get to see him?' Accordingly with a message from Confucius he went to see Lao Dan.

老聃方將倨堂而應微曰:「予年運而往矣,子將何以戒我乎?」子貢曰:「夫三王、五帝之治天下不同,其係聲名一也。而先生獨以為非聖人,如何哉?」老聃曰:「小子少進!子何以謂不同?」對曰:「堯授舜,舜授禹,禹用力而湯用兵,文王順紂而不敢逆,武王逆紂而不肯順,故曰不同。」

Lao Dan was then about to answer (his salutation) haughtily in the hall, but he said in a low voice, 'My years have rolled on and are passing away, what do you, Sir, wish to admonish me about?' Zi-gong replied, 'The Three Kings and Five Dis ruled the world not in the same way, but the fame that has accrued to them is the same. How is it that you alone consider that they were not sages?' 'Come forward a little, my son. Why do you say that (their government) was not the same?' 'Yao,' was the reply, 'gave the kingdom to Shun, and Shun gave it to Yu. Yu had recourse to his strength, and Tang to the force of arms. King Wen was obedient to Zhou (-xin), and did not dare to rebel; king Wu rebelled against Zhou, and would not submit to him. And I say that their methods were not the same.'

老聃曰:「小子少進!余語汝三皇、五帝之治天下。黃帝之治天下,使民心一,民有其親死不哭而民不非也。堯之治天下,使民心親,民有為其親殺其殺而民不非也。舜之治天下,使民心競,民孕婦十月生子,子生五月而能言,不至乎孩而始誰,則人始有夭矣。禹之治天下,使民心變,人有心而兵有順,殺盜非殺,人自為種而天下耳,是以天下大駭,儒、墨皆起。其作始有倫,而今乎婦女,何言哉!余語汝:三皇、五帝之治天下,名曰治之,而亂莫甚焉。三皇之知,上悖日月之明,下睽山川之精,中墮四時之施。其知憯於蠣蠆之尾,鮮規之獸,莫得安其性命之情者,而猶自以為聖人,不可恥乎?其無恥也!」子貢蹴蹴然立不安。

Lao Dan said, 'Come a little more forward, my son, and I will tell you how the Three Huangs and the Five Dis ruled the world. Huang-Di ruled it, so as to make the minds of the people all conformed to the One (simplicity). If the parents of one of them died, and he did not wail, no one blamed him. Yao ruled it so as to cause the hearts of the people to cherish relative affection. If any, however, made the observances on the death of other members of their kindred less than those for their parents, no one blamed them. Shun ruled it, so as to produce a feeling of rivalry in the minds of the people. Their wives gave birth to their children in the tenth month of their pregnancy, but those children could speak at five months; and before they were three years old, they began to call people by their surnames and names. Then it was that men began to die prematurely. Yu ruled it, so as to cause the minds of the people to become changed. Men's minds became scheming, and they used their weapons as if they might legitimately do so, (saying that they were) killing thieves and not killing other men. The people formed themselves into different combinations - so it was throughout the kingdom. Everywhere there was great consternation, and then arose the Literati and (the followers of) Mo (Di). From them came first the doctrine of the relationships (of society); and what can be said of the now prevailing customs (in the marrying of) wives and daughters? I tell you that the rule of the Three Kings and Five Dis may be called by that name, but nothing can be greater than the disorder which it produced. The wisdom of the Three Kings was opposed to the brightness of the sun and moon above, contrary to the exquisite purity of the hills and streams below, and subversive of the beneficent gifts of the four seasons between. Their wisdom has been more fatal than the sting of a scorpion or the bite of a dangerous beast. Unable to rest in the true attributes of their nature and constitution, they still regarded themselves as sages: was it not a thing to be ashamed of? But they were shameless.' Zi-gong stood quite disconcerted and ill at ease.

== 장자(莊子) ==
《外篇》[Outer Chapters]
〈天運〉[The Revolution of Heaven] - 7 :
孔子謂老聃曰:「丘治《詩》、《書》、《禮》、《樂》、《易》、《春秋》六經,自以為久矣,孰知其故矣,以奸者七十二君,論先王之道而明周、召之跡,一君無所鉤用。甚矣夫!人之難說也,道之難明邪!」

Confucius said to Lao Dan, 'I have occupied myself with the Shi, the Shu, the Li, the Yue, the Yi, and the Chun Qiu, those six Books, for what I myself consider a long time, and am thoroughly acquainted with their contents. With seventy-two rulers, all offenders against the right, I have discoursed about the ways of the former kings, and set forth the examples (of the dukes of Zhou and Shao); and not one of them has adopted (my views) and put them in practice: how very difficult it is to prevail on such men, and to make clear the path to be pursued!'

老子曰:「幸矣,子之不遇治世之君也!夫六經,先王之陳跡也,豈其所以跡哉!今子之所言,猶迹也。夫迹,履之所出,而迹豈履哉!夫白鶂之相視,眸子不運而風化;蟲,雄鳴於上風,雌應於下風而風化。類自為雌雄,故風化。性不可易,命不可變,時不可止,道不可壅。苟得其道,無自而不可;失焉者,無自而可。」

Laozi replied, 'It is fortunate that you have not met with a ruler fitted to rule the age. Those six writings are a description of the vestiges left by the former kings, but do not tell how they made such vestiges; and what you, Sir, speak about are still only the vestiges. But vestiges are the prints left by the shoes - are they the shoes that produced them? A pair of white herons look at each other with pupils that do not move, and impregnation takes place; the male insect emits its buzzing sound in the air above, and the female responds from the air below, and impregnation takes place; the creatures called lei are both male and female, and each individual breeds of itself. The nature cannot be altered; the conferred constitution cannot be changed; the march of the seasons cannot be arrested; the Dao cannot be stopped. If you get the Dao, there is no effect that cannot be produced; if you miss it, there is no effect that can.'

孔子不出三月,復見,曰:「丘得之矣。烏鵲孺,魚傅沫,細要者化,有弟而兄啼。久矣夫,丘不與化為人!不與化為人,安能化人!」老子曰:「可。丘得之矣。」

Confucius (after this) did not go out, till at the end of three months he went again to see Lao Dan, and said, 'I have got it. Ravens produce their young by hatching; fishes by the communication of their milt; the small-waisted wasp by transformation; when a younger brother comes, the elder weeps. Long is it that I have not played my part in harmony with these processes of transformation. But as I did not play my part in harmony with such transformation, how could I transform men?' Laozi said, 'You will do. Qiu, you have found the Dao.‘

== 장자(莊子) ==
《外篇》[Outer Chapters]
〈刻意〉[Ingrained Ideas] - 1 :
刻意尚行,離世異俗,高論怨誹,為亢而已矣,此山谷之士,非世之人,枯槁赴淵者之所好也。語仁義忠信,恭儉推讓,為修而已矣,此平世之士,教誨之人,遊居學者之所好也。語大功,立大名,禮君臣,正上下,為治而已矣,此朝廷之士,尊主強國之人,致功并兼者之所好也。就藪澤,處閒曠,釣魚閒處,無為而已矣,此江海之士,避世之人,閒暇者之所好也。吹呴呼吸,吐故納新,熊經鳥申,為壽而已矣,此道引之士,養形之人,彭祖壽考者之所好也。

Ingrained ideas and a high estimate of their own conduct; leaving the world, and pursuing uncommon ways; talking loftily and in resentful disparagement of others - all this is simply symptomatic of arrogance. This is what scholars who betake themselves to the hills and valleys, who are always blaming the world, and who stand aloof like withered trees, or throw themselves into deep pools, are fond of. Discoursing of benevolence, righteousness, loyalty, and good faith; being humble and frugal, self-forgetful and courteous - all this is simply symptomatic of (self-)cultivation. This is what scholars who wish to tranquillise the world, teachers and instructors, men who pursue their studies at home and abroad, are fond of. Discoursing of their great merit and making a great name for themselves; insisting on the ceremonies between ruler and minister; and rectifying the relations between high and low - all this shows their one object to be the promotion of government. This is what officers of the court, men who honour their lord and would strengthen the state and who would do their utmost to incorporate other states with their own, are fond of. Resorting to marshes and lakes; dwelling in solitary places; occupying themselves with angling and living at ease - all this shows their one object to be to do nothing. This is what gentlemen of the rivers and seas, men who avoid the society of the world and desire to live at leisure, are fond of. Blowing and breathing with open mouth; inhaling and exhaling the breath; expelling the old breath and taking in new; passing their time like the (dormant) bear, and stretching and twisting (the neck) like a bird - all this simply shows the desire for longevity. This is what the scholars who manipulate their breath, and the men who nourish the body and wish to live as long as Peng Zu are fond of.

若夫不刻意而高,無仁義而修,無功名而治,無江海而閒,不道引而壽,無不忘也,無不有也,澹然無極而眾美從之,此天地之道,聖人之德也。

As to those who have a lofty character without any ingrained ideas; who pursue the path of self-cultivation without benevolence and righteousness; who succeed in government without great services or fame; who enjoy their ease without resorting to the rivers and seas; who attain to longevity without the management (of the breath); who forget all things and yet possess all things; whose placidity is unlimited, while all things to be valued attend them: such men pursue the way of heaven and earth, and display the characteristics of the sages.

== 장자(莊子) ==
《外篇》[Outer Chapters]
〈刻意〉[Ingrained Ideas] - 2 :
故曰:夫恬惔寂寞,虛無無為,此天地之平而道德之質也。

Hence it is said, 'Placidity, indifference, silence, quietude, absolute vacancy, and non-action: these are the qualities which maintain the level of heaven and earth and are the substance of the Dao and its characteristics.'

故曰:聖人休,休焉則平易矣,平易則恬惔矣。平易恬惔,則憂患不能入,邪氣不能襲,故其德全而神不虧。

In accordance with this it is said, 'The sage is entirely restful, and so (his mind) is evenly balanced and at ease. This even balance and ease appears in his placidity and indifference. In this state of even balance and ease, of placidity and indifference, anxieties and evils do not find access to him, no depraving influence can take him by surprise; his virtue is complete, and his spirit continues unimpaired.'

故曰:聖人之生也天行,其死也物化;靜而與陰同德,動而與陽同波;不為福先,不為禍始;感而後應,迫而後動,不得已而後起。去知與故,循天之理,故無天災,無物累,無人非,無鬼責。其生若浮,其死若休;不思慮,不豫謀;光矣而不耀,信矣而不期;其寢不夢,其覺無憂;其神純粹,其魂不罷。虛無恬惔,乃合天德。

Therefore it is (also) said, 'The life of the sage is (like) the action of Heaven; and his death is the transformation common to (all) things. In his stillness his virtue is the same as that of the Yin, and in movement his diffusiveness is like that of the Yang. He does not take the initiative in producing either happiness or calamity. He responds to the influence acting on him, and moves as he feels the pressure. He rises to act only when he is obliged to do so. He discards wisdom and the memories of the past; he follows the lines of his Heaven (-given nature); and therefore he suffers no calamity from Heaven, no involvement from things, no blame from men, and no reproof from the spirits of the dead. His life seems to float along; his death seems to be a resting. He does not indulge any anxious doubts; he does not lay plans beforehand. His light is without display; his good faith is without previous arrangement. His sleep is untroubled by dreams; his waking is followed by no sorrows. His spirit is guileless and pure; his soul is not subject to weariness. Vacant and without self-assertion, placid and indifferent, he agrees with the virtue of Heaven.'

故曰:悲樂者,德之邪;喜怒者,道之過;好惡者,德之失。故心不憂樂,德之至也;一而不變,靜之至也;無所於忤,虛之至也;不與物交,惔之至也;無所於逆,粹之至也。

Therefore it is said (further), 'Sadness and pleasure show a depraving element in the virtue (of those who feel them); joy and anger show some error in their course; love and hatred show a failure of their virtue. Hence for the mind to be free from sorrow and pleasure is the perfection of virtue; to be of one mind that does not change is the perfection of quietude; to be conscious of no opposition is the perfection of vacancy; to have no intercourse with (external) things is the perfection of indifference; and to have no rebellious dissatisfactions is the perfection of purity.'

故曰:形勞而不休則弊,精用而不已則勞,勞則竭。水之性,不雜則清,莫動則平,鬱閉而不流,亦不能清,天德之象也。

Therefore it is said (still further), 'If the body be toiled, and does not rest, it becomes worn out; if the spirit be used without cessation, it becomes toiled; and when toiled, it becomes exhausted. It is the nature of water, when free from admixture, to be clear, and, when not agitated, to be level; while if obstructed and not allowed to flow, it cannot preserve its clearness - being an image of the virtue of Heaven.'

故曰:純粹而不雜,靜一而不變,惔而無為,動而以天行,此養神之道也。

Hence it is said (once again), 'To be guileless and pure, and free from all admixture; to be still and uniform, without undergoing any change; to be indifferent and do nothing; to move and yet to act like Heaven: this is the way to nourish the spirit.

== 장자(莊子) ==
《外篇》[Outer Chapters]
〈刻意〉[Ingrained Ideas] - 3 :
夫有干、越之劍者,柙而藏之,不敢用也,寶之至也。精神四達並流,無所不極,上際於天,下蟠於地,化育萬物,不可為象,其名為同帝。純素之道,惟神是守,守而勿失,與神為一,一之精通,合於天倫。野語有之曰:「眾人重利,廉士重名,賢人尚志,聖人貴精。」故素也者,謂其無所與雜也;純也者,謂其不虧其神也。能體純素,謂之真人。

Now he who possesses a sword made at Gan-Yue preserves it carefully in a box, and does not dare to use it - it is considered the perfection of valuable swords. But the human spirit goes forth in all directions, flowing on without limit, reaching to heaven above, and wreathing round the earth beneath. It transforms and nourishes all things, and cannot be represented by any form. Its name is "the Divinity (in man)." It is only the path of pure simplicity which guards and preserves the Spirit. When this path is preserved and not lost, it becomes one with the Spirit; and in this ethereal amalgamation, it acts in harmony with the orderly operation of Heaven.' There is the vulgar saying, 'The multitude of men consider gain to be the most important thing; pure scholars, fame; those who are wise and able value their ambition; the sage prizes essential purity.' Therefore simplicity is the denomination of that in which there is no admixture; purity of that in which the spirit is not impaired. It is he who can embody simplicity and purity whom we call the True Man.

== 장자(莊子) ==
《外篇》[Outer Chapters]
〈繕性〉[Correcting the Nature] - 1 :
繕性於俗,俗學以求復其初,滑欲於俗,思以求致其明,謂之蔽蒙之民。

Those who would correct their nature by means of the vulgar learning, seeking to restore it to its original condition, and those who would regulate their desires, by the vulgar ways of thinking, seeking thereby to carry their intelligence to perfection, must be pronounced to be deluded and ignorant people.

古之治道者,以恬養知;知生而無以知為也,謂之以知養恬。知與恬交相養,而和理出其性。夫德,和也;道,理也。德無不容,仁也;道無不理,義也;義明而物親,忠也;中純實而反乎情,樂也;信行容體而順乎文,禮也。禮樂遍行,則天下亂矣。彼正而蒙己德,德則不冒,冒則物必失其性也。

The ancients who regulated the Dao nourished their faculty of knowledge by their placidity, and all through life abstained from employing that faculty in action - they must be pronounced to have (thus also) nourished their placidity by their knowledge. When the faculty of knowledge and the placidity (thus) blend together, and they nourish each other, then from the nature there come forth harmony and orderly method. The attributes (of the Dao) constitute the harmony; the Dao (itself) secures the orderly method. When the attributes appear in a universal practice of forbearance, we have Benevolence; when the path is all marked by orderly method, we have Righteousness; when the righteousness is clearly manifested, and (all) things are regarded with affection, we have Leal-heartedness; when the (heart's) core is thus (pure) and real, and carried back to its (proper) qualities, we have Music; when this sincerity appears in all the range of the capacity, and its demonstrations are in accordance with what is elegant, we have Ceremony. If ceremonies and Music are carried out in an imperfect and one-sided manner, the world is thrown into confusion. When men would rectify others, and their own virtue is beclouded, it is not sufficient to extend itself to them. If an attempt be made so to extend it, they also will lose their (proper) nature.

== 장자(莊子) ==
《外篇》[Outer Chapters]
〈繕性〉[Correcting the Nature] - 2 :
古之人在混芒之中,與一世而得澹漠焉。當是時也,陰陽和靜,鬼神不擾,四時得節,萬物不傷,群生不夭,人雖有知,無所用之,此之謂至一。當是時也,莫之為而常自然。

The men of old, while the chaotic condition was yet undeveloped, shared the placid tranquillity which belonged to the whole world. At that time the Yin and Yang were harmonious and still; their resting and movement proceeded without any disturbance; the four seasons had their definite times; not a single thing received any injury, and no living being came to a premature end. Men might be possessed of (the faculty of) knowledge, but they had no occasion for its use. This was what is called the state of Perfect Unity. At this time, there was no action on the part of any one, but a constant manifestation of spontaneity.

逮德下衰,及燧人、伏羲始為天下,是故順而不一。德又下衰,及神農、黃帝始為天下,是故安而不順。德又下衰,及唐、虞始為天下,興治化之流,澆淳散朴,離道以善,險德以行,然後去性而從於心。心與心識知而不足以定天下,然後附之以文,益之以博。文滅質,博溺心,然後民始惑亂,無以反其性情而復其初。

This condition (of excellence) deteriorated and decayed, till Sui-ren and Fu-xi arose and commenced their administration of the world; on which came a compliance (with their methods), but the state of unity was lost. The condition going on to deteriorate and decay, Shen Nong and Huang-Di arose, and took the administration of the world, on which (the people) rested (in their methods), but did not themselves comply with them. Still the deterioration and decay continued till the lords of Tang and Yu began to administer the world. These introduced the method of governing by transformation, resorting to the stream (instead of to the spring), thus vitiating the purity and destroying the simplicity (of the nature). They left the Dao, and substituted the Good for it, and pursued the course of Haphazard Virtue. After this they forsook their nature and followed (the promptings of) their minds. One mind and another associated their knowledge, but were unable to give rest to the world. Then they added to this knowledge (external and) elegant forms, and went on to make these more and more numerous. The forms extinguished the (primal) simplicity, till the mind was drowned by their multiplicity. After this the people began to be perplexed and disordered, and had no way by which they might return to their true nature, and bring back their original condition.

== 장자(莊子) ==
《外篇》[Outer Chapters]
〈繕性〉[Correcting the Nature] - 3 :
由是觀之,世喪道矣,道喪世矣。世與道交相喪也。道之人何由興乎世,世亦何由興乎道哉!道無以興乎世,世無以興乎道,雖聖人不在山林之中,其德隱矣。隱,故不自隱。古之所謂隱士者,非伏其身而弗見也,非閉其言而不出也,非藏其知而不發也,時命大謬也。當時命而大行乎天下,則反一無跡;不當時命而大窮乎天下,則深根寧極而待。此存身之道也。古之行身者,不以辯飾知,不以知窮天下,不以知窮德,危然處其所而反其性,己又何為哉!道固不小行,德固不小識。小識傷德,小行傷道。故曰:正己而已矣。

Looking at the subject from this point of view, we see how the world lost the (proper) course, and how the course (which it took) only led it further astray. The world and the Way, when they came together, being (thus) lost to each other, how could the men of the Way make themselves conspicuous in the world? and how could the world rise to an appreciation of the Way? Since the Way had no means to make itself conspicuous in the world, and the world had no means of rising to an appreciation of the Way, though sagely men might not keep among the hills and forests, their virtue was hidden - hidden, but not because they themselves sought to hide it. Those whom the ancients called 'Retired Scholars' did not conceal their persons, and not allow themselves to be seen; they did not shut up their words, and refuse to give utterance to them; they did not hide away their knowledge, and refuse to bring it forth. The conditions laid on them by the times were very much awry. If the conditions of the times had allowed them to act in the world on a great scale, they would have brought back the state of unity without any trace being perceived (of how they did so), When those conditions shut them up entirely from such action, they struck their roots deeper (in themselves), were perfectly still and waited. It was thus that they preserved (the Way in) their own persons. The ancients who preserved (the Way in) their own persons did not try by sophistical reasonings to gloss over their knowledge; they did not seek to embrace (everything in) the world in their knowledge, nor to comprehend all the virtues in it. Solitary and trembling they remained where they were, and sought the restoration of their nature. What had they to do with any further action? The Way indeed is not to be pursued, nor (all) its characteristics to be known on a small scale. A little knowledge is injurious to those characteristics; small doings are injurious to the Way - hence it is said, 'They simply rectified themselves.'

樂全之謂得志。古之所謂得志者,非軒冕之謂也,謂其無以益其樂而已矣。今之所謂得志者,軒冕之謂也。軒冕在身,非性命也,物之儻來,寄者也。寄之,其來不可圉,其去不可止。故不為軒冕肆志,不為窮約趨俗,其樂彼與此同,故無憂而已矣。今寄去則不樂,由是觀之,雖樂,未嘗不荒也。故曰:喪己於物,失性於俗者,謂之倒置之民。

Complete enjoyment is what is meant by 'the Attainment of the Aim.' What was anciently called 'the Attainment of the Aim' did not mean the getting of carriages and coronets; it simply meant that nothing more was needed for their enjoyment. Now-a-days what is called 'the Attainment of the Aim' means the getting of carriages and coronets. But carriages and coronets belong to the body; they do not affect the nature as it is constituted. When such things happen to come, it is but for a time; being but for a time, their coming cannot be obstructed and their going cannot be stopped. Therefore we should not because of carriages and coronets indulge our aims, nor because of distress and straitness resort to the vulgar (learning and thinking); the one of these conditions and the other may equally conduce to our enjoyment, which is simply to be free from anxiety. If now the departure of what is transient takes away one's enjoyment, this view shows that what enjoyment it had given was worthless. Hence it is said, 'They who lose themselves in their pursuit of things, and lose their nature in their study of what is vulgar, must be pronounced people who turn things upside down.'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《外篇》[Outer Chapters]
〈秋水〉[The Floods of Autumn] - 1 :
秋水時至,百川灌河,涇流之大,兩涘渚崖之間,不辯牛馬。於是焉河伯欣然自喜,以天下之美為盡在己。順流而東行,至於北海,東面而視,不見水端,於是焉河伯始旋其面目,望洋向若而歎,曰:「野語有之曰『聞道百,以為莫己若』者,我之謂也。且夫我嘗聞少仲尼之聞而輕伯夷之義者,始吾弗信,今我睹子之難窮也,吾非至於子之門則殆矣,吾長見笑於大方之家。」

The time of the autumnal floods was come, and the hundred streams were all discharging themselves into the He. Its current was greatly swollen, so that across its channel from bank to bank one could not distinguish an ox from a horse. On this the (Spirit-) earl of the He laughed with delight, thinking that all the beauty of the world was to be found in his charge. Along the course of the river he walked east till he came to the North Sea, over which he looked, with his face to the east, without being able to see where its waters began. Then he began to turn his face round, looked across the expanse, (as if he were) confronting Ruo, and said with a sigh, 'What the vulgar saying expresses about him who has learned a hundred points (of the Dao), and thinks that there is no one equal to himself, was surely spoken of me. And moreover, I have heard parties making little of the knowledge of Zhongni and the righteousness of Bo-yi, and at first I did not believe them. Now I behold the all-but-boundless extent (of your realms). If I had not come to your gate, I should have been in danger (of continuing in my ignorance), and been laughed at for long in the schools of our great System.'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《外篇》[Outer Chapters]
〈秋水〉[The Floods of Autumn] - 2 :
北海若曰:「井蛙不可以語於海者,拘於虛也;夏蟲不可以語於冰者,篤於時也;曲士不可以語於道者,束於教也。今爾出於崖涘,觀於大海,乃知爾醜,爾將可與語大理矣。天下之水,莫大於海,萬川歸之,不知何時止而不盈;尾閭泄之,不知何時已而不虛;春秋不變,水旱不知。此其過江河之流,不可為量數。而吾未嘗以此自多者,自以比形於天地而受氣於陰陽,吾在天地之間,猶小石小木之在大山也,方存乎見少,又奚以自多!計四海之在天地之間也,不似礨空之在大澤乎?計中國之在海內,不似稊米之在大倉乎?號物之數謂之萬,人處一焉;人卒九州,穀食之所生,舟車之所通,人處一焉。此其比萬物也,不似豪末之在於馬體乎?五帝之所連,三王之所爭,仁人之所憂,任士之所勞,盡此矣。伯夷辭之以為名,仲尼語之以為博,此其自多也,不似爾向之自多於水乎?」

Ruo, (the Spirit-lord) of the Northern Sea, said, 'A frog in a well cannot be talked with about the sea - he is confined to the limits of his hole. An insect of the summer cannot be talked with about ice - it knows nothing beyond its own season. A scholar of limited views cannot be talked with about the Dao - he is bound by the teaching (which he has received). Now you have come forth from between your banks, and beheld the great sea. You have come to know your own ignorance and inferiority, and are in the way of being fitted to be talked with about great principles. Of all the waters under heaven there are none so great as the sea. A myriad streams flow into it without ceasing, and yet it is not filled; and afterwards it discharges them (also) without ceasing, and yet it is not emptied. In spring and in autumn it undergoes no change; it takes no notice of floods or of drought. Its superiority over such streams even as the Jiang and the He cannot be told by measures or numbers; and that I have never, notwithstanding this, made much of myself, is because I compare my own bodily form with (the greatness of) heaven and earth, and (remember that) I have received my breath from the Yin and Yang. Between heaven and earth I am but as a small stone or a small tree on a great hill. So long as I see myself to be thus small, how should I make much of myself? I estimate all within the four seas, compared with the space between heaven and earth, to be not so large as that occupied by a pile of stones in a large marsh! I estimate our Middle States, compared with the space between the four seas, to be smaller than a single little grain of rice in a great granary! When we would set forth the number of things (in existence), we speak of them as myriads; and man is only one of them. Men occupy all the nine provinces; but of all whose life is maintained by grain-food, wherever boats and carriages reach, men form only one portion. Thus compared with the myriads of things, they are not equal to a single fine hair on the body of a horse. Within this range are comprehended all (the territories) which the five Dis received in succession from one another; all which the royal founders of the three dynasties contended for; all which excited the anxiety of Benevolent men; and all which men in office have toiled for. Bo-yi was accounted famous for declining (to share in its government), and Zhongni was accounted great because of the lessons which he addressed to it. They acted as they did, making much of themselves - therein like you who a little time ago did so of yourself because of your (volume of) water!'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《外篇》[Outer Chapters]
〈秋水〉[The Floods of Autumn] - 3 :
河伯曰:「然則吾大天地而小毫末可乎?」北海若曰:「否。夫物,量無窮,時無止,分無常,終始無故。是故大知觀於遠近,故小而不寡,大而不多,知量無窮;證曏今故,故遙而不悶,掇而不跂,知時無止;察乎盈虛,故得而不喜,失而不憂,知分之無常也;明乎坦塗,故生而不說,死而不禍,知終始之不可故也。計人之所知,不若其所不知;其生之時,不若未生之時。以其至小,求窮其至大之域,是故迷亂而不能自得也。由此觀之,又何以知毫末之足以定至細之倪!又何以知天地之足以窮至大之域!」

The earl of the He said, 'Well then, may I consider heaven and earth as (the ideal of) what is great, and the point of a hair as that of what is small?' Ruo of the Northern Sea replied, 'No. The (different) capacities of things are illimitable; time never stops, (but is always moving on); man's lot is ever changing; the end and the beginning of things never occur (twice) in the same way. Therefore men of great wisdom, looking at things far off or near at hand, do not think them insignificant for being small, nor much of them for being great: knowing how capacities differ illimitably. They appeal with intelligence to things of ancient and recent occurrence, without being troubled by the remoteness of the former, or standing on tiptoe to lay hold of the latter: knowing that time never stops in its course. They examine with discrimination (cases of) fulness and of want, not overjoyed by success, nor disheartened by failure: knowing the inconstancy of man's lot. They know the plain and quiet path (in which things proceed), therefore they are not overjoyed to live, nor count it a calamity to die: the end and the beginning of things never occurring (twice) in the same way. We must reckon that what men know is not so much as what they do not know, and that the time since they were born is not so long as that which elapsed before they were born. When they take that which is most small and try to fill with it the dimensions of what is most great, this leads to error and confusion, and they cannot attain their end. Looking at the subject in this way, how can you know that the point of a hair is sufficient to determine the minuteness of what is most small, or that heaven and earth are sufficient to complete the dimensions of what is most large?'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《外篇》[Outer Chapters]
〈秋水〉[The Floods of Autumn] - 4 :
河伯曰:「世之議者皆曰:『至精無形,至大不可圍。』是信情乎?」北海若曰:「夫自細視大者不盡,自大視細者不明。夫精,小之微也,垺,大之殷也,故異便。此勢之有也。夫精粗者,期於有形者也;無形者,數之所不能分也;不可圍者,數之所不能窮也。可以言論者,物之粗也;可以意致者,物之精也;言之所不能論,意之所不能察致者,不期精粗焉。是故大人之行,不出乎害人,不多仁恩;動不為利,不賤門隸;貨財弗爭,不多辭讓;事焉不惜人,不多食乎力,不賤貪污;行殊乎俗,不多辟異;為在從眾,不賤佞諂;世之爵祿不足以為勸,戮恥不足以為辱;知是非之不可為分,細大之不可為倪。聞曰:『道人不聞,至德不得,大人無己,約分之至也。」

The earl of the He said, 'The disputers of the world all say, "That which is most minute has no bodily form; and that which is most great cannot be encompassed" - is this really the truth?' Ruo of the Northern Sea replied, 'When from the standpoint of what is small we look at what is great, we do not take it all in; when from the standpoint of what is great we look at what is small, we do not see it clearly. Now the subtile essence is smallness in its extreme degree; and the vast mass is greatness in its largest form. Different as they are, each has its suitability - according to their several conditions. But the subtile and the gross both presuppose that they have a bodily form. Where there is no bodily form, there is no longer a possibility of numerical division; where it is not possible to encompass a mass, there is no longer a possibility of numerical estimate. What can be discoursed about in words is the grossness of things; what can be reached in idea is the subtilty of things. What cannot be discoursed about in words, and what cannot be reached by nice discrimination of thought, has nothing to do either with subtilty or grossness. Therefore while the actions of the Great Man are not directed to injure men, he does not plume himself on his benevolence and kindness; while his movements are not made with a view to gain, he does not consider the menials of a family as mean; while he does not strive after property and wealth, he does not plume himself on declining them; while he does not borrow the help of others to accomplish his affairs, he does not plume himself on supporting himself by his own strength, nor does he despise those who in their greed do what is mean; while he differs in his conduct from the vulgar, he does not plume himself on being so different from them; while it is his desire to follow the multitude, he does not despise the glib-tongued flatterers. The rank and emoluments of the world furnish no stimulus to him, nor does he reckon its punishments and shame to be a disgrace. He knows that the right and the wrong can (often) not be distinguished, and that what is small and what is great can (often) not be defined. I have heard it said, "The Man of Dao does not become distinguished; the greatest virtue is unsuccessful; the Great Man has no thought of self" - to so great a degree may the lot be restricted.'