== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈齊物論〉[The Adjustment of Controversies] - 3 :
非彼無我,非我無所取。是亦近矣,而不知其所為使。若有真宰,而特不得其眹。可行已信,而不見其形,有情而無形。百骸、九竅、六藏,賅而存焉,吾誰與為親?汝皆說之乎?其有私焉?如是皆有,為臣妾乎,其臣妾不足以相治乎。其遞相為君臣乎,其有真君存焉。如求得其情與不得,無益損乎其真。一受其成形,不亡以待盡。與物相刃相靡,其行盡如馳,而莫之能止,不亦悲乎!終身役役而不見其成功,苶然疲役而不知其所歸,可不哀邪!人謂之不死,奚益?其形化,其心與之然,可不謂大哀乎?人之生也,固若是芒乎!其我獨芒,而人亦有不芒者乎!

If there were not (the views of) another, I should not have mine; if there were not I (with my views), his would be uncalled for:-- this is nearly a true statement of the case, but we do not know what it is that makes it be so. It might seem as if there would be a true Governor concerned in it, but we do not find any trace (of his presence and acting). That such an One could act so I believe; but we do not see His form. He has affections, but He has no form. Given the body, with its hundred parts, its nine openings, and its six viscera, all complete in their places, which do I love the most? Do you love them all equally? or do you love some more than others? Is it not the case that they all perform the part of your servants and waiting women? All of them being such, are they not incompetent to rule one another? or do they take it in turns to be now ruler and now servants? There must be a true Ruler (among them) whether by searching you can find out His character or not, there is neither advantage nor hurt, so far as the truth of His operation is concerned. When once we have received the bodily form complete, its parts do not fail to perform their functions till the end comes. In conflict with things or in harmony with them, they pursue their course to the end, with the speed of a galloping horse which cannot be stopped - is it not sad? To be constantly toiling all one's lifetime, without seeing the fruit of one's labour, and to be weary and worn out with his labour, without knowing where he is going to - is it not a deplorable case? Men may say, 'But it is not death;' yet of what advantage is this? When the body is decomposed, the mind will be the same along with it - must not the case be pronounced very deplorable? Is the life of man indeed enveloped in such darkness? Is it I alone to whom it appears so? And does it not appear to be so to other men?

== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈齊物論〉[The Adjustment of Controversies] - 4 :
夫隨其成心而師之,誰獨且無師乎?奚必知代而心自取者有之?愚者與有焉。未成乎心而有是非,是今日適越而昔至也。是以無有為有。無有為有,雖有神禹,且不能知,吾獨且柰何哉!夫言非吹也。言者有言,其所言者特未定也。果有言邪?其未嘗有言邪?其以為異於鷇音,亦有辯乎,其無辯乎?道惡乎隱而有真偽?言惡乎隱而有是非?道惡乎往而不存?言惡乎存而不可?道隱於小成,言隱於榮華。故有儒、墨之是非,以是其所非,而非其所是。欲是其所非而非其所是,則莫若以明。

If we were to follow the judgments of the predetermined mind, who would be left alone and without a teacher? Not only would it be so with those who know the sequences (of knowledge and feeling) and make their own selection among them, but it would be so as well with the stupid and unthinking. For one who has not this determined mind, to have his affirmations and negations is like the case described in the saying, 'He went to Yue to-day, and arrived at it yesterday.' It would be making what was not a fact to be a fact. But even the spirit-like Yu could not have known how to do this, and how should one like me be able to do it? But speech is not like the blowing (of the wind); the speaker has (a meaning in) his words. If, however, what he says, be indeterminate (as from a mind not made up), does he then really speak or not? He thinks that his words are different from the chirpings of fledgelings; but is there any distinction between them or not? But how can the Dao be so obscured, that there should be 'a True' and 'a False' in it? How can speech be so obscured that there should be 'the Right' and 'the Wrong' about them? Where shall the Dao go to that it will not be found? Where shall speech be found that it will be inappropriate? Dao becomes obscured through the small comprehension (of the mind), and speech comes to be obscure through the vain-gloriousness (of the speaker). So it is that we have the contentions between the Literati and the Mohists, the one side affirming what the other denies, and vice versa. If we would decide on their several affirmations and denials, no plan is like bringing the (proper) light (of the mind) to bear on them.

== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈齊物論〉[The Adjustment of Controversies] - 5 :
物無非彼,物無非是。自彼則不見,自知則知之。故曰:彼出於是,是亦因彼。彼是,方生之說也。雖然,方生方死,方死方生;方可方不可,方不可方可;因是因非,因非因是。是以聖人不由,而照之于天,亦因是也。是亦彼也,彼亦是也。彼亦一是非,此亦一是非。果且有彼是乎哉?果且無彼是乎哉?彼是莫得其偶,謂之道樞。樞始得其環中,以應無窮。是亦一無窮,非亦一無窮也。故曰「莫若以明」。

There is no thing that is not "that", and there is no thing that is not "this". If I look at something from "that", I do not see it; only if I look at it from knowing do I know it. Hence it is said, 'That view comes from this; and this view is a consequence of that:' - which is the theory that that view and this (the opposite views) produce each the other. Although it be so, there is affirmed now life and now death; now death and now life; now the admissibility of a thing and now its inadmissibility; now its inadmissibility and now its admissibility. (The disputants) now affirm and now deny; now deny and now affirm. Therefore the sagely man does not pursue this method, but views things in the light of (his) Heaven (-ly nature), and hence forms his judgment of what is right. This view is the same as that, and that view is the same as this. But that view involves both a right and a wrong; and this view involves also a right and a wrong - are there indeed the two views, that and this? Or are there not the two views, that and this? They have not found their point of correspondency which is called the pivot of the Dao. As soon as one finds this pivot, he stands in the centre of the ring (of thought), where he can respond without end to the changing views; without end to those affirming, and without end to those denying. Therefore I said, 'There is nothing like the proper light (of the mind).'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈齊物論〉[The Adjustment of Controversies] - 6 :
以指喻指之非指,不若以非指喻指之非指也;以馬喻馬之非馬,不若以非馬喻馬之非馬也。天地,一指也;萬物,一馬也。
可乎可,不可乎不可。道行之而成,物謂之而然。惡乎然?然於然。惡乎不然?不然於不然。物固有所然,物固有所可。無物不然,無物不可。故為是舉莛與楹,厲與西施,恢恑憰怪,道通為一。
其分也,成也;其成也,毀也。凡物無成與毀,復通為一。唯達者知通為一,為是不用而寓諸庸。庸也者,用也;用也者,通也;通也者,得也。適得而幾矣。因是已。已而不知其然,謂之道。勞神明為一,而不知其同也,謂之朝三。何謂朝三?曰狙公賦芧,曰:「朝三而莫四。」眾狙皆怒。曰:「然則朝四而莫三。」眾狙皆悅。名實未虧,而喜怒為用,亦因是也。是以聖人和之以是非,而休乎天鈞,是之謂兩行。

By means of a finger (of my own) to illustrate that the finger (of another) is not a finger is not so good a plan as to illustrate that it is not so by means of what is (acknowledged to be) not a finger; and by means of (what I call) a horse to illustrate that (what another calls) a horse is not so, is not so good a plan as to illustrate that it is not a horse, by means of what is (acknowledged to be) not a horse. (All things in) heaven and earth may be (dealt with as) a finger; (each of) their myriads may be (dealt with as) a horse.
Does a thing seem so to me? (I say that) it is so. Does it seem not so to me? (I say that) it is not so. A path is formed by (constant) treading on the ground. A thing is called by its name through the (constant) application of the name to it. How is it so? It is so because it is so. How is it not so? It is not so, because it is not so. Everything has its inherent character and its proper capability. There is nothing which has not these. Therefore, this being so, if we take a stalk of grain and a (large) pillar, a loathsome (leper) and (a beauty like) Xi Shi, things large and things insecure, things crafty and things strange; they may in the light of the Dao all be reduced to the same category (of opinion about them).
It was separation that led to completion; from completion ensued dissolution. But all things, without regard to their completion and dissolution, may again be comprehended in their unity - it is only the far reaching in thought who know how to comprehend them in this unity. This being so, let us give up our devotion to our own views, and occupy ourselves with the ordinary views. These ordinary views are grounded on the use of things. (The study of that) use leads to the comprehensive judgment, and that judgment secures the success (of the inquiry). That success gained, we are near (to the object of our search), and there we stop. When we stop, and yet we do not know how it is so, we have what is called the Dao. When we toil our spirits and intelligence, obstinately determined (to establish our own view), and do not know the agreement (which underlies it and the views of others), we have what is called 'In the morning three.' What is meant by that 'In the morning three?' A keeper of monkeys, in giving them out their acorns, (once) said, 'In the morning I will give you three (measures) and in the evening four.' This made them all angry, and he said, 'Very well. In the morning I will give you four and in the evening three.' The monkeys were all pleased. His two proposals were substantially the same, but the result of the one was to make the creatures angry, and of the other to make them pleased - an illustration of the point I am insisting on. Therefore the sagely man brings together a dispute in its affirmations and denials, and rests in the equal fashioning of Heaven. Both sides of the question are admissible.

== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈齊物論〉[The Adjustment of Controversies] - 7 :
古之人,其知有所至矣。惡乎至?有以為未始有物者,至矣盡矣,不可以加矣。其次以為有物矣,而未始有封也。其次以為有封焉,而未始有是非也。是非之彰也,道之所以虧也。道之所以虧,愛之所以成。果且有成與虧乎哉?果且無成與虧乎哉?有成與虧,故昭氏之鼓琴也;無成與虧,故昭氏之不鼓琴也。昭文之鼓琴也,師曠之枝策也,惠子之據梧也,三子之知幾乎!皆其盛者也,故載之末年。唯其好之也,以異於彼,其好之也,欲以明之彼。非所明而明之,故以堅白之昧終。而其子又以文之綸終,終身無成。若是而可謂成乎,雖我亦成也。若是而不可謂成乎,物與我無成也。是故滑疑之耀,聖人之所圖也。為是不用而寓諸庸,此之謂以明。

Among the men of old their knowledge reached the extreme point. What was that extreme point? Some held that at first there was not anything. This is the extreme point, the utmost point to which nothing can be added. A second class held that there was something, but without any responsive recognition of it (on the part of men). A third class held that there was such recognition, but there had not begun to be any expression of different opinions about it. It was through the definite expression of different opinions about it that there ensued injury to (the doctrine of) the Dao. It was this injury to the (doctrine of the) Dao which led to the formation of (partial) preferences. Was it indeed after such preferences were formed that the injury came? or did the injury precede the rise of such preferences? If the injury arose after their formation, Zhao's method of playing on the lute was natural. If the injury arose before their formation, there would have been no such playing on the lute as Zhao's. Zhao Wen's playing on the lute, Shi Kuang's indicating time with his staff, and Huizi's (giving his views), while leaning against a dryandra tree (were all extraordinary). The knowledge of the three men (in their several arts) was nearly perfect, and therefore they practised them to the end of their lives. They loved them because they were different from those of others. They loved them and wished to make them known to others. But as they could not be made clear, though they tried to make them so, they ended with the obscure (discussions) about 'the hard' and 'the white.' And their sons, moreover, with all the threads of their fathers' compositions, yet to the end of their lives accomplished nothing. If they, proceeding in this way, could be said to have succeeded, then am I also successful; if they cannot be pronounced successful, neither I nor any other can succeed. Therefore the scintillations of light from the midst of confusion and perplexity are indeed valued by the sagely man; but not to use one's own views and to take his position on the ordinary views is what is called using the (proper) light.

== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈齊物論〉[The Adjustment of Controversies] - 8 :
今且有言於此,不知其與是類乎?其與是不類乎?類與不類,相與為類,則與彼無以異矣。雖然,請嘗言之。有始也者,有未始有始也者,有未始有夫未始有始也者。有有也者,有無也者,有未始有無也者,有未始有夫未始有無也者。俄而有無矣,而未知有無之果孰有孰無也。今我則已有謂矣,而未知吾所謂之其果有謂乎,其果無謂乎?

But here now are some other sayings - I do not know whether they are of the same character as those which I have already given, or of a different character. Whether they be of the same character or not when looked at along with them, they have a character of their own, which cannot be distinguished from the others. But though this be the case, let me try to explain myself. There was a beginning. There was a beginning before that beginning. There was a beginning previous to that beginning before there was the beginning. There was existence; there had been no existence. There was no existence before the beginning of that no existence. There was no existence previous to the no existence before there was the beginning of the no existence. If suddenly there was nonexistence, we do not know whether it was really anything existing, or really not existing. Now I have said what I have said, but I do not know whether what I have said be really anything to the point or not.

== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈齊物論〉[The Adjustment of Controversies] - 9 :
天下莫大於秋豪之末,而大山為小;莫壽乎殤子,而彭祖為夭。天地與我並生,而萬物與我為一。既已為一矣,且得有言乎?既已謂之一矣,且得無言乎?一與言為二,二與一為三。自此以往,巧歷不能得,而況其凡乎!故自無適有,以至於三,而況自有適有乎!無適焉,因是已。

Under heaven there is nothing greater than the tip of an autumn down, and the Tai mountain is small. There is no one more long-lived than a child which dies prematurely, and Peng Zu did not live out his time. Heaven, Earth, and I were produced together, and all things and I are one. Since they are one, can there be speech about them? But since they are spoken of as one, must there not be room for speech? One and Speech are two; two and one are three. Going on from this (in our enumeration), the most skilful reckoner cannot reach (the end of the necessary numbers), and how much less can ordinary people do so! Therefore from non-existence we proceed to existence till we arrive at three; proceeding from existence to existence, to how many should we reach? Let us abjure such procedure, and simply rest here.

== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈齊物論〉[The Adjustment of Controversies] - 10 :
夫道未始有封,言未始有常,為是而有畛也。請言其畛:有左,有右,有倫,有義,有分,有辯,有競,有爭,此之謂八德。六合之外,聖人存而不論;六合之內,聖人論而不議。春秋經世,先王之志,聖人議而不辯。故分也者,有不分也;辯也者,有不辯也。曰:何也?聖人懷之,眾人辯之以相示也。故曰:辯也者,有不見也。夫大道不稱,大辯不言,大仁不仁,大廉不嗛,大勇不忮。道昭而不道,言辯而不及,仁常而不成,廉清而不信,勇忮而不成。五者园而幾向方矣。故知止其所不知,至矣。孰知不言之辯,不道之道?若有能知,此之謂天府。注焉而不滿,酌焉而不竭,而不知其所由來,此之謂葆光。故昔者堯問於舜曰:「我欲伐宗、膾、胥敖,南面而不釋然。其故何也?」舜曰:「夫三子者,猶存乎蓬艾之間。若不釋然,何哉?昔者十日並出,萬物皆照,而況德之進乎日者乎!」

The Dao at first met with no responsive recognition. Speech at first had no constant forms of expression. Because of this there came the demarcations (of different views). Let me describe those demarcations: they are the Left and the Right; the Relations and their Obligations; Classifications and their Distinctions; Emulations and Contentions. These are what are called 'the Eight Qualities.' Outside the limits of the world of men, the sage occupies his thoughts, but does not discuss about anything; inside those limits he occupies his thoughts, but does not pass any judgments. In the Chun Qiu, which embraces the history of the former kings, the sage indicates his judgments, but does not argue (in vindication of them). Thus it is that he separates his characters from one another without appearing to do so, and argues without the form of argument. How does he do so? The sage cherishes his views in his own breast, while men generally state theirs argumentatively, to show them to others. Hence we have the saying, 'Disputation is a proof of not seeing clearly.'
The Great Dao does not admit of being praised. The Great Argument does not require words. Great Benevolence is not (officiously) benevolent. Great Disinterestedness does not vaunt its humility. Great Courage is not seen in stubborn bravery. The Dao that is displayed is not the Dao. Words that are argumentative do not reach the point. Benevolence that is constantly exercised does not accomplish its object. Disinterestedness that vaunts its purity is not genuine. Courage that is most stubborn is ineffectual. These five seem to be round (and complete), but they tend to become square (and immovable). Therefore the knowledge that stops at what it does not know is the greatest. Who knows the argument that needs no words, and the Way that is not to be trodden? He who is able to know this has what is called 'The Heavenly Treasure-house.' He may pour into it without its being filled; he may pour from it without its being exhausted; and all the while he does not know whence (the supply) comes. This is what is called 'The Store of Light.' Therefore of old Yao asked Shun, saying, 'I wish to smite (the rulers of) Zong, Kuai, and Xu-Ao. Even when standing in my court, I cannot get them out of my mind. How is it so?' Shun replied, 'Those three rulers live (in their little states) as if they were among the mugwort and other brushwood - how is it that you cannot get them out of your mind? Formerly, ten suns came out together, and all things were illuminated by them; how much should (your) virtue exceed (all) suns!'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈齊物論〉[The Adjustment of Controversies] - 11 :
齧缺問乎王倪曰:「子知物之所同是乎?」曰:「吾惡乎知之!」「子知子之所不知邪?」曰:「吾惡乎知之!」「然則物無知邪?」曰:「吾惡乎知之!雖然,嘗試言之。庸詎知吾所謂知之非不知邪?庸詎知吾所謂不知之非知邪?且吾嘗試問乎女:民溼寢則腰疾偏死,鰌然乎哉?木處則惴慄恂懼,猨猴然乎哉?三者孰知正處?民食芻豢,麋鹿食薦,蝍且甘帶,鴟鴉耆鼠,四者孰知正味?猨,猵狙以為雌,麋與鹿交,鰌與魚游。毛嬙、麗姬,人之所美也,魚見之深入,鳥見之高飛,麋鹿見之決驟。四者孰知天下之正色哉?自我觀之,仁義之端,是非之塗,樊然殽亂,吾惡能知其辯!」齧缺曰:「子不知利害,則至人固不知利害乎?」王倪曰:「至人神矣:大澤焚而不能熱,河、漢沍而不能寒,疾雷破山、風振海而不能驚。若然者,乘雲氣,騎日月,而遊乎四海之外。死生无變於己,而況利害之端乎!」

Nie Que asked Wang Ni, saying, 'Do you know, Sir, what all creatures agree in approving and affirming?' 'How should I know it?' was the reply. 'Do you know what it is that you do not know?' asked the other again, and he got the same reply. He asked a third time, 'Then are all creatures thus without knowledge?' and Wang Ni answered as before, (adding however), 'Notwithstanding, I will try and explain my meaning. How do you know that when I say "I know it," I really (am showing that) I do not know it, and that when I say "I do not know it," I really am showing that I do know it.' And let me ask you some questions: 'If a man sleep in a damp place, he will have a pain in his loins, and half his body will be as if it were dead; but will it be so with an eel? If he be living in a tree, he will be frightened and all in a tremble; but will it be so with a monkey? And does any one of the three know his right place ? Men eat animals that have been fed on grain and grass; deer feed on the thick-set grass; centipedes enjoy small snakes; owls and crows delight in mice; but does any one of the four know the right taste? The dog-headed monkey finds its mate in the female gibbon; the elk and the axis deer cohabit; and the eel enjoys itself with other fishes. Mao Qiang and Li Ji were accounted by men to be most beautiful, but when fishes saw them, they dived deep in the water from them; when birds, they flew from them aloft; and when deer saw them, they separated and fled away. But did any of these four know which in the world is the right female attraction? As I look at the matter, the first principles of benevolence and righteousness and the paths of approval and disapproval are inextricably mixed and confused together - how is it possible that I should know how to discriminate among them?' Nie Que said (further), 'Since you, Sir, do not know what is advantageous and what is hurtful, is the Perfect man also in the same way without the knowledge of them?' Wang Ni replied, 'The Perfect man is spirit-like. Great lakes might be boiling about him, and he would not feel their heat; the He and the Han might be frozen up, and he would not feel the cold; the hurrying thunderbolts might split the mountains, and the wind shake the ocean, without being able to make him afraid. Being such, he mounts on the clouds of the air, rides on the sun and moon, and rambles at ease beyond the four seas. Neither death nor life makes any change in him, and how much less should the considerations of advantage and injury do so!'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈齊物論〉[The Adjustment of Controversies] - 12 :
瞿鵲子問乎長梧子曰:「吾聞諸夫子,聖人不從事於務,不就利,不違害,不喜求,不緣道,无謂有謂,有謂无謂,而遊乎塵垢之外。夫子以為孟浪之言,而我以為妙道之行也。吾子以為奚若?」長梧子曰:「是黃帝之所聽熒也,而丘也何足以知之!且女亦大早計,見卵而求時夜,見彈而求鴞炙。予嘗為女妄言之,女以妄聽之,奚?旁日月,挾宇宙,為其脗合,置其滑涽,以隸相尊。眾人役役,聖人愚芚,參萬歲而一成純。萬物盡然,而以是相蘊。予惡乎知說生之非惑邪!予惡乎知惡死之非弱喪而不知歸者邪!麗之姬,艾封人之子也。晉國之始得之也,涕泣沾襟;及其至於王所,與王同筐床,食芻豢,而後悔其泣也。予惡乎知夫死者不悔其始之蘄生乎!夢飲酒者,旦而哭泣;夢哭泣者,旦而田獵。方其夢也,不知其夢也。夢之中又占其夢焉,覺而後知其夢也。且有大覺而後知此其大夢也,而愚者自以為覺,竊竊然知之。君乎,牧乎,固哉!丘也,與女皆夢也;予謂女夢,亦夢也。是其言也,其名為弔詭。萬世之後,而一遇大聖知其解者,是旦暮遇之也。既使我與若辯矣,若勝我,我不若勝,若果是也?我果非也邪?我勝若,若不吾勝,我果是也?而果非也邪?其或是也,其或非也邪?其俱是也,其俱非也邪?我與若不能相知也,則人固受其黮闇。吾誰使正之?使同乎若者正之,既與若同矣,惡能正之!使同乎我者正之,既同乎我矣,惡能正之!使異乎我與若者正之,既異乎我與若矣,惡能正之!使同乎我與若者正之,既同乎我與若矣,惡能正之!然則我與若與人俱不能相知也,而待彼也邪?化聲之相待,若其不相待。和之以天倪,因之以曼衍,所以窮年也。何謂和之以天倪?曰:是不是,然不然。是若果是也,則是之異乎不是也亦無辯;然若果然也,則然之異乎不然也亦無辯。忘年忘義,振於無竟,故寓諸無竟。」

Qu Quezi asked Chang Wuzi, saying, 'I heard the Master (speaking of such language as the following): "The sagely man does not occupy himself with worldly affairs. He does not put himself in the way of what is profitable, nor try to avoid what is hurtful; he has no pleasure in seeking (for anything from any one); he does not care to be found in (any established) Way; he speaks without speaking; he does not speak when he speaks; thus finding his enjoyment outside the dust and dirt (of the world)." The Master considered all this to be a shoreless flow of mere words, and I consider it to describe the course of the Mysterious Way - What do you, Sir, think of it?' Chang Wuzi replied, 'The hearing of such words would have perplexed even Huang Di, and how should Qiu be competent to understand them? And you, moreover, are too hasty in forming your estimate (of their meaning). You see the egg, and (immediately) look out for the cock (that is to be hatched from it); you see the bow, and (immediately) look out for the dove (that is to be brought down by it) being roasted. I will try to explain the thing to you in a rough way; do you in the same way listen to me. How could any one stand by the side of the sun and moon, and hold under his arm all space and all time? (Such language only means that the sagely man) keeps his mouth shut, and puts aside questions that are uncertain and dark; making his inferior capacities unite with him in honouring (the One Lord). Men in general bustle about and toil; the sagely man seems stupid and to know nothing. He blends ten thousand years together in the one (conception of time); the myriad things all pursue their spontaneous course, and they are all before him as doing so. How do I know that the love of life is not a delusion? and that the dislike of death is not like a young person's losing his way, and not knowing that he is (really) going home? Li Ji was a daughter of the border Warden of Ai. When (the ruler of) the state of Jin first got possession of her, she wept till the tears wetted all the front of her dress. But when she came to the place of the king, shared with him his luxurious couch, and ate his grain-and-grass-fed meat, then she regretted that she had wept. How do I know that the dead do not repent of their former craving for life? Those who dream of (the pleasures of) drinking may in the morning wail and weep; those who dream of wailing and weeping may in the morning be going out to hunt. When they were dreaming they did not know it was a dream; in their dream they may even have tried to interpret it; but when they awoke they knew that it was a dream. And there is the great awaking, after which we shall know that this life was a great dream. All the while, the stupid think they are awake, and with nice discrimination insist on their knowledge; now playing the part of rulers, and now of grooms. Bigoted was that Qiu! He and you are both dreaming. I who say that you are dreaming am dreaming myself. These words seem very strange; but if after ten thousand ages we once meet with a great sage who knows how to explain them, it will be as if we met him (unexpectedly) some morning or evening.
Since you made me enter into this discussion with you, if you have got the better of me and not I of you, are you indeed right, and I indeed wrong? If I have got the better of you and not you of me, am I indeed right and you indeed wrong? Is the one of us right and the other wrong? are we both right or both wrong? Since we cannot come to a mutual and common understanding, men will certainly continue in darkness on the subject. Whom shall I employ to adjudicate in the matter? If I employ one who agrees with you, how can he, agreeing with you, do so correctly? If I employ one who agrees with me, how can he, agreeing with me, do so correctly? If I employ one who disagrees with you and I, how can he, disagreeing with you and I, do so correctly? If I employ one who agrees with you and I, how can he, agreeing with you and I, do so correctly? In this way I and you and those others would all not be able to come to a mutual understanding; and shall we then wait for that (great sage)? (We need not do so.) To wait on others to learn how conflicting opinions are changed is simply like not so waiting at all. The harmonising of them is to be found in the invisible operation of Heaven, and by following this on into the unlimited past. It is by this method that we can complete our years (without our minds being disturbed). What is meant by harmonising (conflicting opinions) in the invisible operation of Heaven? There is the affirmation and the denial of it; and there is the assertion of an opinion and the rejection of it. If the affirmation be according to the reality of the fact, it is certainly different from the denial of it - there can be no dispute about that. If the assertion of an opinion be correct, it is certainly different from its rejection - neither can there be any dispute about that. Let us forget the lapse of time; let us forget the conflict of opinions. Let us make our appeal to the Infinite, and take up our position there.'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈齊物論〉[The Adjustment of Controversies] - 13 :
罔兩問景曰:「曩子行,今子止,曩子坐,今子起,何其無特操與?」景曰:「吾有待而然者邪!吾所待又有待而然者邪!吾待蛇蚹、蜩翼邪!惡識所以然?惡識所以不然?」

The Penumbra asked the Shadow, saying, 'Formerly you were walking on, and now you have stopped; formerly you were sitting, and now you have risen up - how is it that you are so without stability?' The Shadow replied, 'I wait for the movements of something else to do what I do, and that something else on which I wait waits further on another to do as it does. My waiting, is it for the scales of a snake, or the wings of a cicada? How should I know why I do one thing, or do not do another?

== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈齊物論〉[The Adjustment of Controversies] - 14 :
昔者莊周夢為胡蝶,栩栩然胡蝶也,自喻適志與!不知周也。俄然覺,則蘧蘧然周也。不知周之夢為胡蝶與,胡蝶之夢為周與?周與胡蝶,則必有分矣。此之謂物化。

Formerly, I, Zhuang Zhou, dreamt that I was a butterfly, a butterfly flying about, feeling that it was enjoying itself. I did not know that it was Zhou. Suddenly I awoke, and was myself again, the veritable Zhou. I did not know whether it had formerly been Zhou dreaming that he was a butterfly, or it was now a butterfly dreaming that it was Zhou. But between Zhou and a butterfly there must be a difference. This is a case of what is called the Transformation of Things.'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈養生主〉[Nourishing the Lord of Life] - 1 :
吾生也有涯,而知也无涯。以有涯隨无涯,殆已;已而為知者,殆而已矣。為善无近名,為惡无近刑。緣督以為經,可以保身,可以全生,可以養親,可以盡年。

There is a limit to our life, but to knowledge there is no limit. With what is limited to pursue after what is unlimited is a perilous thing; and when, knowing this, we still seek the increase of our knowledge, the peril cannot be averted. There should not be the practice of what is good with any thought of the fame (which it will bring), nor of what is evil with any approximation to the punishment (which it will incur): an accordance with the Central Element (of our nature) is the regular way to preserve the body, to maintain the life, to nourish our parents, and to complete our term of years.

== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈養生主〉[Nourishing the Lord of Life] - 2 :
庖丁為文惠君解牛,手之所觸,肩之所倚,足之所履,膝之所踦,砉然嚮然,奏刀騞然,莫不中音。合於《桑林》之舞,乃中《經首》之會。文惠君曰:「譆!善哉!技蓋至此乎?」庖丁釋刀對曰:「臣之所好者道也,進乎技矣。始臣之解牛之時,所見无非牛者。三年之後,未嘗見全牛也。方今之時,臣以神遇,而不以目視,官知止而神欲行。依乎天理,批大郤,導大窾,因其固然。技經肯綮之未嘗,而況大軱乎!良庖歲更刀,割也;族庖月更刀,折也。今臣之刀十九年矣,所解數千牛矣,而刀刃若新發於硎。彼節者有間,而刀刃者无厚,以无厚入有間,恢恢乎其於遊刃必有餘地矣,是以十九年而刀刃若新發於硎。雖然,每至於族,吾見其難為,怵然為戒,視為止,行為遲。動刀甚微,謋然已解,如土委地。提刀而立,為之四顧,為之躊躇滿志,善刀而藏之。」文惠君曰:「善哉!吾聞庖丁之言,得養生焉。」

His cook was cutting up an ox for the ruler Wen Hui. Whenever he applied his hand, leaned forward with his shoulder, planted his foot, and employed the pressure of his knee, in the audible ripping off of the skin, and slicing operation of the knife, the sounds were all in regular cadence. Movements and sounds proceeded as in the dance of 'the Mulberry Forest' and the blended notes of the King Shou.' The ruler said, 'Ah! Admirable! That your art should have become so perfect!' (Having finished his operation), the cook laid down his knife, and replied to the remark, 'What your servant loves is the method of the Dao, something in advance of any art. When I first began to cut up an ox, I saw nothing but the (entire) carcase. After three years I ceased to see it as a whole. Now I deal with it in a spirit-like manner, and do not look at it with my eyes. The use of my senses is discarded, and my spirit acts as it wills. Observing the natural lines, (my knife) slips through the great crevices and slides through the great cavities, taking advantage of the facilities thus presented. My art avoids the membranous ligatures, and much more the great bones. A good cook changes his knife every year; (it may have been injured) in cutting - an ordinary cook changes his every month - (it may have been) broken. Now my knife has been in use for nineteen years; it has cut up several thousand oxen, and yet its edge is as sharp as if it had newly come from the whetstone. There are the interstices of the joints, and the edge of the knife has no (appreciable) thickness; when that which is so thin enters where the interstice is, how easily it moves along! The blade has more than room enough. Nevertheless, whenever I come to a complicated joint, and see that there will be some difficulty, I proceed anxiously and with caution, not allowing my eyes to wander from the place, and moving my hand slowly. Then by a very slight movement of the knife, the part is quickly separated, and drops like (a clod of) earth to the ground. Then standing up with the knife in my hand, I look all round, and in a leisurely manner, with an air of satisfaction, wipe it clean, and put it in its sheath.' The ruler Wen Hui said, 'Excellent! I have heard the words of my cook, and learned from them the nourishment of (our) life.'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈養生主〉[Nourishing the Lord of Life] - 3 :
公文軒見右師而驚曰:「是何人也?惡乎介也?天與,其人與?」曰:「天也,非人也。天之生是使獨也,人之貌有與也。以是知其天也,非人也。」

When Gong-wen Xian saw the Master of the Left, he was startled, and said, 'What sort of man is this? How is it he has but one foot? Is it from Heaven? or from Man?' Then he added, 'It must be from Heaven, and not from Man. Heaven's making of this man caused him to have but one foot. In the person of man, each foot has its marrow. By this I know that his peculiarity is from Heaven, and not from Man.