== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈齊物論〉[The Adjustment of Controversies] - 11 :
齧缺問乎王倪曰:「子知物之所同是乎?」曰:「吾惡乎知之!」「子知子之所不知邪?」曰:「吾惡乎知之!」「然則物無知邪?」曰:「吾惡乎知之!雖然,嘗試言之。庸詎知吾所謂知之非不知邪?庸詎知吾所謂不知之非知邪?且吾嘗試問乎女:民溼寢則腰疾偏死,鰌然乎哉?木處則惴慄恂懼,猨猴然乎哉?三者孰知正處?民食芻豢,麋鹿食薦,蝍且甘帶,鴟鴉耆鼠,四者孰知正味?猨,猵狙以為雌,麋與鹿交,鰌與魚游。毛嬙、麗姬,人之所美也,魚見之深入,鳥見之高飛,麋鹿見之決驟。四者孰知天下之正色哉?自我觀之,仁義之端,是非之塗,樊然殽亂,吾惡能知其辯!」齧缺曰:「子不知利害,則至人固不知利害乎?」王倪曰:「至人神矣:大澤焚而不能熱,河、漢沍而不能寒,疾雷破山、風振海而不能驚。若然者,乘雲氣,騎日月,而遊乎四海之外。死生无變於己,而況利害之端乎!」

Nie Que asked Wang Ni, saying, 'Do you know, Sir, what all creatures agree in approving and affirming?' 'How should I know it?' was the reply. 'Do you know what it is that you do not know?' asked the other again, and he got the same reply. He asked a third time, 'Then are all creatures thus without knowledge?' and Wang Ni answered as before, (adding however), 'Notwithstanding, I will try and explain my meaning. How do you know that when I say "I know it," I really (am showing that) I do not know it, and that when I say "I do not know it," I really am showing that I do know it.' And let me ask you some questions: 'If a man sleep in a damp place, he will have a pain in his loins, and half his body will be as if it were dead; but will it be so with an eel? If he be living in a tree, he will be frightened and all in a tremble; but will it be so with a monkey? And does any one of the three know his right place ? Men eat animals that have been fed on grain and grass; deer feed on the thick-set grass; centipedes enjoy small snakes; owls and crows delight in mice; but does any one of the four know the right taste? The dog-headed monkey finds its mate in the female gibbon; the elk and the axis deer cohabit; and the eel enjoys itself with other fishes. Mao Qiang and Li Ji were accounted by men to be most beautiful, but when fishes saw them, they dived deep in the water from them; when birds, they flew from them aloft; and when deer saw them, they separated and fled away. But did any of these four know which in the world is the right female attraction? As I look at the matter, the first principles of benevolence and righteousness and the paths of approval and disapproval are inextricably mixed and confused together - how is it possible that I should know how to discriminate among them?' Nie Que said (further), 'Since you, Sir, do not know what is advantageous and what is hurtful, is the Perfect man also in the same way without the knowledge of them?' Wang Ni replied, 'The Perfect man is spirit-like. Great lakes might be boiling about him, and he would not feel their heat; the He and the Han might be frozen up, and he would not feel the cold; the hurrying thunderbolts might split the mountains, and the wind shake the ocean, without being able to make him afraid. Being such, he mounts on the clouds of the air, rides on the sun and moon, and rambles at ease beyond the four seas. Neither death nor life makes any change in him, and how much less should the considerations of advantage and injury do so!'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈齊物論〉[The Adjustment of Controversies] - 12 :
瞿鵲子問乎長梧子曰:「吾聞諸夫子,聖人不從事於務,不就利,不違害,不喜求,不緣道,无謂有謂,有謂无謂,而遊乎塵垢之外。夫子以為孟浪之言,而我以為妙道之行也。吾子以為奚若?」長梧子曰:「是黃帝之所聽熒也,而丘也何足以知之!且女亦大早計,見卵而求時夜,見彈而求鴞炙。予嘗為女妄言之,女以妄聽之,奚?旁日月,挾宇宙,為其脗合,置其滑涽,以隸相尊。眾人役役,聖人愚芚,參萬歲而一成純。萬物盡然,而以是相蘊。予惡乎知說生之非惑邪!予惡乎知惡死之非弱喪而不知歸者邪!麗之姬,艾封人之子也。晉國之始得之也,涕泣沾襟;及其至於王所,與王同筐床,食芻豢,而後悔其泣也。予惡乎知夫死者不悔其始之蘄生乎!夢飲酒者,旦而哭泣;夢哭泣者,旦而田獵。方其夢也,不知其夢也。夢之中又占其夢焉,覺而後知其夢也。且有大覺而後知此其大夢也,而愚者自以為覺,竊竊然知之。君乎,牧乎,固哉!丘也,與女皆夢也;予謂女夢,亦夢也。是其言也,其名為弔詭。萬世之後,而一遇大聖知其解者,是旦暮遇之也。既使我與若辯矣,若勝我,我不若勝,若果是也?我果非也邪?我勝若,若不吾勝,我果是也?而果非也邪?其或是也,其或非也邪?其俱是也,其俱非也邪?我與若不能相知也,則人固受其黮闇。吾誰使正之?使同乎若者正之,既與若同矣,惡能正之!使同乎我者正之,既同乎我矣,惡能正之!使異乎我與若者正之,既異乎我與若矣,惡能正之!使同乎我與若者正之,既同乎我與若矣,惡能正之!然則我與若與人俱不能相知也,而待彼也邪?化聲之相待,若其不相待。和之以天倪,因之以曼衍,所以窮年也。何謂和之以天倪?曰:是不是,然不然。是若果是也,則是之異乎不是也亦無辯;然若果然也,則然之異乎不然也亦無辯。忘年忘義,振於無竟,故寓諸無竟。」

Qu Quezi asked Chang Wuzi, saying, 'I heard the Master (speaking of such language as the following): "The sagely man does not occupy himself with worldly affairs. He does not put himself in the way of what is profitable, nor try to avoid what is hurtful; he has no pleasure in seeking (for anything from any one); he does not care to be found in (any established) Way; he speaks without speaking; he does not speak when he speaks; thus finding his enjoyment outside the dust and dirt (of the world)." The Master considered all this to be a shoreless flow of mere words, and I consider it to describe the course of the Mysterious Way - What do you, Sir, think of it?' Chang Wuzi replied, 'The hearing of such words would have perplexed even Huang Di, and how should Qiu be competent to understand them? And you, moreover, are too hasty in forming your estimate (of their meaning). You see the egg, and (immediately) look out for the cock (that is to be hatched from it); you see the bow, and (immediately) look out for the dove (that is to be brought down by it) being roasted. I will try to explain the thing to you in a rough way; do you in the same way listen to me. How could any one stand by the side of the sun and moon, and hold under his arm all space and all time? (Such language only means that the sagely man) keeps his mouth shut, and puts aside questions that are uncertain and dark; making his inferior capacities unite with him in honouring (the One Lord). Men in general bustle about and toil; the sagely man seems stupid and to know nothing. He blends ten thousand years together in the one (conception of time); the myriad things all pursue their spontaneous course, and they are all before him as doing so. How do I know that the love of life is not a delusion? and that the dislike of death is not like a young person's losing his way, and not knowing that he is (really) going home? Li Ji was a daughter of the border Warden of Ai. When (the ruler of) the state of Jin first got possession of her, she wept till the tears wetted all the front of her dress. But when she came to the place of the king, shared with him his luxurious couch, and ate his grain-and-grass-fed meat, then she regretted that she had wept. How do I know that the dead do not repent of their former craving for life? Those who dream of (the pleasures of) drinking may in the morning wail and weep; those who dream of wailing and weeping may in the morning be going out to hunt. When they were dreaming they did not know it was a dream; in their dream they may even have tried to interpret it; but when they awoke they knew that it was a dream. And there is the great awaking, after which we shall know that this life was a great dream. All the while, the stupid think they are awake, and with nice discrimination insist on their knowledge; now playing the part of rulers, and now of grooms. Bigoted was that Qiu! He and you are both dreaming. I who say that you are dreaming am dreaming myself. These words seem very strange; but if after ten thousand ages we once meet with a great sage who knows how to explain them, it will be as if we met him (unexpectedly) some morning or evening.
Since you made me enter into this discussion with you, if you have got the better of me and not I of you, are you indeed right, and I indeed wrong? If I have got the better of you and not you of me, am I indeed right and you indeed wrong? Is the one of us right and the other wrong? are we both right or both wrong? Since we cannot come to a mutual and common understanding, men will certainly continue in darkness on the subject. Whom shall I employ to adjudicate in the matter? If I employ one who agrees with you, how can he, agreeing with you, do so correctly? If I employ one who agrees with me, how can he, agreeing with me, do so correctly? If I employ one who disagrees with you and I, how can he, disagreeing with you and I, do so correctly? If I employ one who agrees with you and I, how can he, agreeing with you and I, do so correctly? In this way I and you and those others would all not be able to come to a mutual understanding; and shall we then wait for that (great sage)? (We need not do so.) To wait on others to learn how conflicting opinions are changed is simply like not so waiting at all. The harmonising of them is to be found in the invisible operation of Heaven, and by following this on into the unlimited past. It is by this method that we can complete our years (without our minds being disturbed). What is meant by harmonising (conflicting opinions) in the invisible operation of Heaven? There is the affirmation and the denial of it; and there is the assertion of an opinion and the rejection of it. If the affirmation be according to the reality of the fact, it is certainly different from the denial of it - there can be no dispute about that. If the assertion of an opinion be correct, it is certainly different from its rejection - neither can there be any dispute about that. Let us forget the lapse of time; let us forget the conflict of opinions. Let us make our appeal to the Infinite, and take up our position there.'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈齊物論〉[The Adjustment of Controversies] - 13 :
罔兩問景曰:「曩子行,今子止,曩子坐,今子起,何其無特操與?」景曰:「吾有待而然者邪!吾所待又有待而然者邪!吾待蛇蚹、蜩翼邪!惡識所以然?惡識所以不然?」

The Penumbra asked the Shadow, saying, 'Formerly you were walking on, and now you have stopped; formerly you were sitting, and now you have risen up - how is it that you are so without stability?' The Shadow replied, 'I wait for the movements of something else to do what I do, and that something else on which I wait waits further on another to do as it does. My waiting, is it for the scales of a snake, or the wings of a cicada? How should I know why I do one thing, or do not do another?

== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈齊物論〉[The Adjustment of Controversies] - 14 :
昔者莊周夢為胡蝶,栩栩然胡蝶也,自喻適志與!不知周也。俄然覺,則蘧蘧然周也。不知周之夢為胡蝶與,胡蝶之夢為周與?周與胡蝶,則必有分矣。此之謂物化。

Formerly, I, Zhuang Zhou, dreamt that I was a butterfly, a butterfly flying about, feeling that it was enjoying itself. I did not know that it was Zhou. Suddenly I awoke, and was myself again, the veritable Zhou. I did not know whether it had formerly been Zhou dreaming that he was a butterfly, or it was now a butterfly dreaming that it was Zhou. But between Zhou and a butterfly there must be a difference. This is a case of what is called the Transformation of Things.'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈養生主〉[Nourishing the Lord of Life] - 1 :
吾生也有涯,而知也无涯。以有涯隨无涯,殆已;已而為知者,殆而已矣。為善无近名,為惡无近刑。緣督以為經,可以保身,可以全生,可以養親,可以盡年。

There is a limit to our life, but to knowledge there is no limit. With what is limited to pursue after what is unlimited is a perilous thing; and when, knowing this, we still seek the increase of our knowledge, the peril cannot be averted. There should not be the practice of what is good with any thought of the fame (which it will bring), nor of what is evil with any approximation to the punishment (which it will incur): an accordance with the Central Element (of our nature) is the regular way to preserve the body, to maintain the life, to nourish our parents, and to complete our term of years.

== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈養生主〉[Nourishing the Lord of Life] - 2 :
庖丁為文惠君解牛,手之所觸,肩之所倚,足之所履,膝之所踦,砉然嚮然,奏刀騞然,莫不中音。合於《桑林》之舞,乃中《經首》之會。文惠君曰:「譆!善哉!技蓋至此乎?」庖丁釋刀對曰:「臣之所好者道也,進乎技矣。始臣之解牛之時,所見无非牛者。三年之後,未嘗見全牛也。方今之時,臣以神遇,而不以目視,官知止而神欲行。依乎天理,批大郤,導大窾,因其固然。技經肯綮之未嘗,而況大軱乎!良庖歲更刀,割也;族庖月更刀,折也。今臣之刀十九年矣,所解數千牛矣,而刀刃若新發於硎。彼節者有間,而刀刃者无厚,以无厚入有間,恢恢乎其於遊刃必有餘地矣,是以十九年而刀刃若新發於硎。雖然,每至於族,吾見其難為,怵然為戒,視為止,行為遲。動刀甚微,謋然已解,如土委地。提刀而立,為之四顧,為之躊躇滿志,善刀而藏之。」文惠君曰:「善哉!吾聞庖丁之言,得養生焉。」

His cook was cutting up an ox for the ruler Wen Hui. Whenever he applied his hand, leaned forward with his shoulder, planted his foot, and employed the pressure of his knee, in the audible ripping off of the skin, and slicing operation of the knife, the sounds were all in regular cadence. Movements and sounds proceeded as in the dance of 'the Mulberry Forest' and the blended notes of the King Shou.' The ruler said, 'Ah! Admirable! That your art should have become so perfect!' (Having finished his operation), the cook laid down his knife, and replied to the remark, 'What your servant loves is the method of the Dao, something in advance of any art. When I first began to cut up an ox, I saw nothing but the (entire) carcase. After three years I ceased to see it as a whole. Now I deal with it in a spirit-like manner, and do not look at it with my eyes. The use of my senses is discarded, and my spirit acts as it wills. Observing the natural lines, (my knife) slips through the great crevices and slides through the great cavities, taking advantage of the facilities thus presented. My art avoids the membranous ligatures, and much more the great bones. A good cook changes his knife every year; (it may have been injured) in cutting - an ordinary cook changes his every month - (it may have been) broken. Now my knife has been in use for nineteen years; it has cut up several thousand oxen, and yet its edge is as sharp as if it had newly come from the whetstone. There are the interstices of the joints, and the edge of the knife has no (appreciable) thickness; when that which is so thin enters where the interstice is, how easily it moves along! The blade has more than room enough. Nevertheless, whenever I come to a complicated joint, and see that there will be some difficulty, I proceed anxiously and with caution, not allowing my eyes to wander from the place, and moving my hand slowly. Then by a very slight movement of the knife, the part is quickly separated, and drops like (a clod of) earth to the ground. Then standing up with the knife in my hand, I look all round, and in a leisurely manner, with an air of satisfaction, wipe it clean, and put it in its sheath.' The ruler Wen Hui said, 'Excellent! I have heard the words of my cook, and learned from them the nourishment of (our) life.'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈養生主〉[Nourishing the Lord of Life] - 3 :
公文軒見右師而驚曰:「是何人也?惡乎介也?天與,其人與?」曰:「天也,非人也。天之生是使獨也,人之貌有與也。以是知其天也,非人也。」

When Gong-wen Xian saw the Master of the Left, he was startled, and said, 'What sort of man is this? How is it he has but one foot? Is it from Heaven? or from Man?' Then he added, 'It must be from Heaven, and not from Man. Heaven's making of this man caused him to have but one foot. In the person of man, each foot has its marrow. By this I know that his peculiarity is from Heaven, and not from Man.

== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈養生主〉[Nourishing the Lord of Life] - 4 :
澤雉十步一啄,百步一飲,不蘄畜乎樊中。神雖王,不善也。

A pheasant of the marshes has to take ten steps to pick up a mouthful of food, and thirty steps to get a drink, but it does not seek to be nourished in a coop. Though its spirit would (there) enjoy a royal abundance, it does not think (such confinement) good.'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈養生主〉[Nourishing the Lord of Life] - 5 :
老聃死,秦失弔之,三號而出。弟子曰:「非夫子之友邪?」曰:「然。」「然則弔焉若此,可乎?」曰:「然。始也,吾以為其人也,而今非也。向吾入而弔焉,有老者哭之,如哭其子;少者哭之,如哭其母。彼其所以會之,必有不蘄言而言,不蘄哭而哭者。是遁天倍情,忘其所受,古者謂之遁天之刑。適來,夫子時也;適去,夫子順也。安時而處順,哀樂不能入也,古者謂是帝之縣解。」

When Lao Dan died, Qin Shi went to condole (with his son), but after crying out three times, he came out. The disciples said to him, 'Were you not a friend of the Master?' 'I was,' he replied, and they said, 'Is it proper then to offer your condolences merely as you have done?' He said, 'It is. At first I thought he was the man of men, and now I do not think so. When I entered a little ago and expressed my condolences, there were the old men wailing as if they had lost a son, and the young men wailing as if they had lost their mother. In his attracting and uniting them to himself in such a way there must have been that which made them involuntarily express their words (of condolence), and involuntarily wail, as they were doing. And this was a hiding from himself of his Heaven (-nature), and an excessive indulgence of his (human) feelings; a forgetting of what he had received (in being born); what the ancients called the punishment due to neglecting the Heaven (-nature). When the Master came, it was at the proper time; when he went away, it was the simple sequence (of his coming). Quiet acquiescence in what happens at its proper time, and quietly submitting (to its ceasing) afford no occasion for grief or for joy. The ancients described (death) as the loosening of the cord on which God suspended (the life).

== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈養生主〉[Nourishing the Lord of Life] - 6 :
指窮於為薪,火傳也,不知其盡也。

What we can point to are the faggots that have been consumed; but the fire is transmitted (elsewhere), and we know not that it is over and ended.

== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈人間世〉["Man in the World, Associated with other Men"] - 1 :
顏回見仲尼請行。曰:「奚之?」曰:「將之衛。」曰:「奚為焉?」曰:「回聞衛君,其年壯,其行獨,輕用其國,而不見其過,輕用民死,死者以國量乎澤,若蕉,民其无如矣。回嘗聞之夫子曰:『治國去之,亂國就之,醫門多疾。』願以所聞思其則,庶幾其國有瘳乎!」仲尼曰:「譆!若殆往而刑耳!夫道不欲雜,雜則多,多則擾,擾則憂,憂而不救。古之至人,先存諸己,而後存諸人。所存於己者未定,何暇至於暴人之所行!且若亦知夫德之所蕩,而知之所為出乎哉?德蕩乎名,知出乎爭。名也者,相軋也;知也者,爭之器也。二者凶器,非所以盡行也。且德厚信矼,未達人氣;名聞不爭,未達人心。而彊以仁義繩墨之言術暴人之前者,是以人惡有其美也,命之曰菑人。菑人者,人必反菑之,若殆為人菑夫!且苟為悅賢而惡不肖,惡用而求有以異?若唯无詔,王公必將乘人而鬭其捷。而目將熒之,而色將平之,口將營之,容將形之,心且成之。是以火救火,以水救水,名之曰益多,順始无窮。若殆以不信厚言,必死於暴人之前矣。且昔者桀殺關龍逢,紂殺王子比干,是皆脩其身以下傴拊人之民,以下拂其上者也,故其君因其脩以擠之。是好名者也。昔者堯攻叢枝、胥敖,禹攻有扈,國為虛厲,身為刑戮,其用兵不止,其求實无已。是皆求名、實者也,而獨不聞之乎?名、實者,聖人之所不能勝也,而況若乎!雖然,若必有以也,嘗以語我來!」顏回曰:「端而虛,勉而一,則可乎?」曰:「惡!惡可?夫以陽為充孔揚,采色不定,常人之所不違,因案人之所感,以求容與其心。名之曰日漸之德不成,而況大德乎!將執而不化,外合而內不訾,其庸詎可乎!」「然則我內直而外曲,成而上比。內直者,與天為徒。與天為徒者,知天子之與己皆天之所子,而獨以己言蘄乎而人善之,蘄乎而人不善之邪?若然者,人謂之童子,是之謂與天為徒。外曲者,與人之為徒也。擎、跽、曲拳,人臣之禮也,人皆為之,吾敢不為邪!為人之所為者,人亦无疵焉,是之謂與人為徒。成而上比者,與古為徒。其言雖教,讁之實也。古之有也,非吾有也。若然者,雖直不為病,是之謂與古為徒。若是,則可乎?」仲尼曰:「惡!惡可?大多政,法而不諜,雖固,亦无罪。雖然,止是耳矣,夫胡可以及化!猶師心者也。」

Yan Hui went to see Zhongni, and asked leave to take his departure. 'Where are you going to?' asked the Master. 'I will go to Wei' was the reply. 'And with what object?' 'I have heard that the ruler of Wei is in the vigour of his years, and consults none but himself as to his course. He deals with his state as if it were a light matter, and has no perception of his errors. He thinks lightly of his people's dying; the dead are lying all over the country as if no smaller space could contain them; on the plains and about the marshes, they are as thick as heaps of fuel. The people know not where to turn to. I have heard you, Master, say, "Leave the state that is well governed; go to the state where disorder prevails." At the door of a physician there are many who are ill. I wish through what I have heard (from you) to think out some methods (of dealing with Wei), if peradventure the evils of the state may be cured.'
Zhongni said, 'Alas! The risk is that you will go only to suffer in the punishment (of yourself)! The right method (in such a case) will not admit of any admixture. With such admixture, the one method will become many methods. Their multiplication will embarrass you. That embarrassment will make you anxious. However anxious you may be, you will not save (yourself). The perfect men of old first had (what they wanted to do) in themselves, and afterwards they found (the response to it) in others. If what they wanted in themselves was not fixed, what leisure had they to go and interfere with the proceedings of any tyrannous man?
Moreover, do you know how virtue is liable to be dissipated, and how wisdom proceeds to display itself? Virtue is dissipated in (the pursuit of) the name for it, and wisdom seeks to display itself in the striving with others. In the pursuit of the name men overthrow one another; wisdom becomes a weapon of contention. Both these things are instruments of evil, and should not be allowed to have free course in one's conduct. Supposing one's virtue to be great and his sincerity firm, if he do not comprehend the spirit of those (whom he wishes to influence); and supposing he is free from the disposition to strive for reputation, if he do not comprehend their minds;-- when in such a case he forcibly insists on benevolence and righteousness, setting them forth in the strongest and most direct language, before the tyrant, then he, hating (his reprover's) possession of those excellences, will put him down as doing him injury. He who injures others is sure to be injured by them in return. You indeed will hardly escape being injured by the man (to whom you go)!
Further, if perchance he takes pleasure in men of worth and hates those of an opposite character, what is the use of your seeking to make yourself out to be different (from such men about him)? Before you have begun to announce (your views), he, as king and ruler, will take advantage of you, and immediately contend with you for victory. Your eyes will be dazed and full of perplexity; you will try to look pleased with him; you will frame your words with care; your demeanour will be conformed to his; you will confirm him in his views. In this way you will be adding fire to fire, and water to water, increasing, as we may express it, the evils (which you deplore). To these signs of deferring to him at the first there will be no end. You will be in danger, seeing he does not believe you, of making your words more strong, and you are sure to die at the hands of such a tyrant.
And formerly Jie killed Guan Long-feng, and Zhou killed the prince Bi-gan. Both of these cultivated their persons, bending down in sympathy with the lower people to comfort them suffering (as they did) from their oppressors, and on their account opposing their superiors. On this account, because they so ordered their conduct, their rulers compassed their destruction - such regard had they for their own fame. (Again), Yao anciently attacked (the states of) Cong-qi and Xu-ao, and Yu attacked the ruler of Hu. Those states were left empty, and with no one to continue their population, the people being exterminated. They had engaged in war without ceasing; their craving for whatever they could get was insatiable. And this (ruler of Wei) is, like them, one who craves after fame and greater substance - have you not heard it? Those sages were not able to overcome the thirst for fame and substance - how much less will you be able to do so! Nevertheless you must have some ground (for the course which you wish to take); pray try and tell it to me.'
Yan Hui said, 'May I go, doing so in uprightness and humility, using also every endeavour to be uniform (in my plans of operation)?' 'No, indeed!' was the reply. 'How can you do so? This man makes a display of being filled to overflowing (with virtue), and has great self-conceit. His feelings are not to be determined from his countenance. Ordinary men do not (venture to) oppose him, and he proceeds from the way in which he affects them to seek still more the satisfaction of his own mind. He may be described as unaffected by the (small lessons of) virtue brought to bear on him from day to day; and how much less will he be so by your great lessons? He will be obstinate, and refuse to be converted. He may outwardly agree with you, but inwardly there will be no self-condemnation - how can you (go to him in this way and be successful)?'
(Yan Hui) rejoined, 'Well then; while inwardly maintaining my straightforward intention, I will outwardly seem to bend to him. I will deliver (my lessons), and substantiate them by appealing to antiquity. Inwardly maintaining my straightforward intention, I shall be a co-worker with Heaven. When I thus speak of being a co-worker with Heaven, it is because I know that (the sovereign, whom we style) the son of Heaven, and myself, are equally regarded by Heaven as Its sons. And should I then, as if my words were only my own, be seeking to find whether men approved of them, or disapproved of them? In this way men will pronounce me a (sincere and simple) boy. This is what is called being a co-worker with Heaven. Outwardly bending (to the ruler), I shall be a co-worker with other men. To carry (the memorandum tablet to court), to kneel, and to bend the body reverentially - these are the observances of ministers. They all employ them, and should I presume not to do so? Doing what other men do, they would have no occasion to blame me. This is what is called being a fellow-worker with other men. Fully declaring my sentiments and substantiating them by appealing to antiquity, I shall be a co-worker with the ancients. Although the words in which I convey my lessons may really be condemnatory (of the ruler), they will be those of antiquity, and not my own. In this way, though straightforward, I shall be free from blame. This is what is called being a co-worker with antiquity. May I go to Wei in this way, and be successful?' 'No indeed!' said Zhongni. 'How can you do so? You have too many plans of proceeding, and have not spied out (the ruler's character). Though you firmly adhere to your plans, you may be held free from transgression, but this will be all the result. How can you (in this way) produce the transformation (which you desire)? All this only shows (in you) the mind of a teacher!'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈人間世〉["Man in the World, Associated with other Men"] - 2 :
顏回曰:「吾无以進矣,敢問其方。」仲尼曰:「齋,吾將語若!有而為之,其易邪?易之者,皞天不宜。」顏回曰:「回之家貧,唯不飲酒、不茹葷者數月矣。若此,則可以為齋乎?」曰:「是祭祀之齋,非心齋也。」回曰:「敢問心齋。」仲尼曰:「若一志,无聽之以耳而聽之以心,无聽之以心而聽之以氣。聽止於耳,心止於符。氣也者,虛而待物者也。唯道集虛。虛者,心齋也。」顏回曰:「回之未始得使,實自回也;得使之也,未始有回也。可謂虛乎?」夫子曰:「盡矣。吾語若!若能入遊其樊而无感其名,入則鳴,不入則止。无門无毒,一宅而寓於不得已,則幾矣。絕迹易,无行地難。為人使,易以偽;為天使,難以偽。聞以有翼飛者矣,未聞以无翼飛者也;聞以有知知者矣,未聞以无知知者也。瞻彼闋者,虛室生白,吉祥止止。夫且不止,是之謂坐馳。夫徇耳目內通而外於心知,鬼神將來舍,而況人乎!是萬物之化也,禹、舜之所紐也,伏戲、几蘧之所行終,而況散焉者乎!」

Yan Hui said, 'I can go no farther; I venture to ask the method from you.' Zhongni replied, 'It is fasting, (as) I will tell you. (But) when you have the method, will you find it easy to practise it? He who thinks it easy will be disapproved of by the bright Heaven.' Hui said, 'My family is poor. For months together we have no spirituous drink, nor do we taste the proscribed food or any strong-smelling vegetables;-- can this be regarded as fasting?' The reply was, 'It is the fasting appropriate to sacrificing, but it is not the fasting of the mind.' 'I venture to ask what that fasting of the mind is,' said Hui, and Zhongni answered, 'Maintain a perfect unity in every movement of your will, You will not wait for the hearing of your ears about it, but for the hearing of your mind. You will not wait even for the hearing of your mind, but for the hearing of the spirit. Let the hearing (of the ears) rest with the ears. Let the mind rest in the verification (of the rightness of what is in the will). But the spirit is free from all pre-occupation and so waits for (the appearance of) things. Where the (proper) course is, there is freedom from all pre-occupation; such freedom is the fasting of the mind.' Hui said, 'Before it was possible for me to employ (this method), there I was, the Hui that I am; now, that I can employ it, the Hui that I was has passed away. Can I be said to have obtained this freedom from pre-occupation?' The Master replied, 'Entirely. I tell you that you can enter and be at ease in the enclosure (where he is), and not come into collision with the reputation (which belongs to him). If he listen to your counsels, let him hear your notes; if he will not listen, be silent. Open no (other) door; employ no other medicine; dwell with him (as with a friend) in the same apartment, and as if you had no other option, and you will not be far from success in your object. Not to move a step is easy; to walk without treading on the ground is difficult. In acting after the manner of men, it is easy to fall into hypocrisy; in acting after the manner of Heaven, it is difficult to play the hypocrite. I have heard of flying with wings; I have not heard of flying without them. I have heard of the knowledge of the wise; I have not heard of the knowledge of the unwise. Look at that aperture (left in the wall); the empty apartment is filled with light through it. Felicitous influences rest (in the mind thus emblemed), as in their proper resting place. Even when they do not so rest, we have what is called (the body) seated and (the mind) galloping abroad. The information that comes through the ears and eyes is comprehended internally, and the knowledge of the mind becomes something external: (when this is the case), the spiritual intelligences will come, and take up their dwelling with us, and how much more will other men do so! All things thus undergo a transforming influence. This was the hinge on which Yu and Shun moved; it was this which Fu-xi and Ji-qu practised all their lives: how much more should other men follow the same rule!'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈人間世〉["Man in the World, Associated with other Men"] - 3 :
葉公子高將使於齊,問於仲尼曰:「王使諸梁也甚重,齊之待使者,蓋將甚敬而不急。匹夫猶未可動,而況諸侯乎!吾甚慄之。子常語諸梁也,曰:『凡事若小若大,寡不道以懽成。事若不成,則必有人道之患;事若成,則必有陰陽之患。若成若不成而後無患者,唯有德者能之。』吾食也,執粗而不臧,爨無欲清之人。今吾朝受命而夕飲冰,我其內熱與!吾未至乎事之情,而既有陰陽之患矣;事若不成,必有人道之患。是兩也,為人臣者不足以任之,子其有以語我來!」仲尼曰:「天下有大戒二:其一,命也;其一,義也。子之愛親,命也,不可解於心;臣之事君,義也,無適而非君也,無所逃於天地之間。是之謂大戒。是以夫事其親者,不擇地而安之,孝之至也;夫事其君者,不擇事而安之,忠之盛也;自事其心者,哀樂不易施乎前,知其不可奈何而安之若命,德之至也。為人臣子者,固有所不得已,行事之情而忘其身,何暇至於悅生而惡死!夫子其行可矣!丘請復以所聞:凡交,近則必相靡以信,遠則必忠之以言,言必或傳之。夫傳兩喜兩怒之言,天下之難者也。夫兩喜必多溢美之言,兩怒必多溢惡之言。凡溢之類妄,妄則其信之也莫,莫則傳言者殃。故法言曰:『傳其常情,無傳其溢言,則幾乎全。』且以巧鬥力者,始乎陽,常卒乎陰,大至則多奇巧;以禮飲酒者,始乎治,常卒乎亂,大至則多奇樂。凡事亦然。始乎諒,常卒乎鄙;其作始也簡,其將畢也必巨。夫言者,風波也;行者,實喪也。風波易以動,實喪易以危。故忿設無由,巧言偏辭。獸死不擇音,氣息茀然,於是並生心厲。剋核大至,則必有不肖之心應之,而不知其然也。苟為不知其然也,孰知其所終!故法言曰:『無遷令,無勸成。』過度,益也。遷令、勸成殆事,美成在久,惡成不及改,可不慎與!且夫乘物以遊心,託不得已以養中,至矣。何作為報也!莫若為致命。此其難者。」

Zi Gao, duke of She, being about to proceed on a mission to Qi, asked Zhongni, saying, 'The king is sending me, Zhu Liang, on a mission which is very important. Qi will probably treat me as his commissioner with great respect, but it will not be in a hurry (to attend to the business). Even an ordinary man cannot be readily moved (to action), and how much less the prince of a state! I am very full of apprehension. You, Sir, once said to me that of all things, great or small, there were few which, if not conducted in the proper way, could be brought to a happy conclusion; that, if the thing were not successful, there was sure to be the evil of being dealt with after the manner of men; that, if it were successful, there was sure to be the evil of constant anxiety; and that, whether it succeeded or not, it was only the virtuous man who could secure its not being followed by evil. In my diet I take what is coarse, and do not seek delicacies - a man whose cookery does not require him to be using cooling drinks. This morning I received my charge, and in the evening I am drinking iced water; am I not feeling the internal heat (and discomfort)? Such is my state before I have actually engaged in the affair; I am already suffering from conflicting anxieties. And if the thing do not succeed, (the king) is sure to deal with me after the manner of men. The evil is twofold; as a minister, I am not able to bear the burden (of the mission). Can you, Sir, tell me something (to help me in the case)?'
Zhongni replied, 'In all things under heaven there are two great cautionary considerations: the one is the requirement implanted (in the nature); the other is the conviction of what is right. The love of a son for his parents is the implanted requirement, and can never be separated from his heart; the service of his ruler by a minister is what is right, and from its obligation there is no escaping anywhere between heaven and earth. These are what are called the great cautionary considerations. Therefore a son finds his rest in serving his parents without reference to or choice of place; and this is the height of filial duty. In the same way a subject finds his rest in serving his ruler, without reference to or choice of the business; and this is the fullest discharge of loyalty. When men are simply obeying (the dictates of) their hearts, the considerations of grief and joy are not readily set before them. They know that there is no alternative to their acting as they do, and rest in it as what is appointed; and this is the highest achievement of virtue. He who is in the position of a minister or of a son has indeed to do what he cannot but do. Occupied with the details of the business (in hand), and forgetful of his own person, what leisure has he to think of his pleasure in living or his dislike of death? You, my master, may well proceed on your mission. But let me repeat to you what I have heard: In all intercourse (between states), if they are near to each other, there should be mutual friendliness, verified by deeds; if they are far apart, there must be sincere adherence to truth in their messages. Those messages will be transmitted by internuncios. But to convey messages which express the complacence or the dissatisfaction of the two parties is the most difficult thing in the world. If they be those of mutual complacence, there is sure to be an overflow of expressions of satisfaction; if of mutual dissatisfaction, an overflow of expressions of dislike. But all extravagance leads to reckless language, and such language fails to command belief. When this distrust arises, woe to the internuncio! Hence the Rules for Speech say, "Transmit the message exactly as it stands; do not transmit it with any overflow of language; so is (the internuncio) likely to keep himself whole."
Moreover, skilful wrestlers begin with open trials of strength, but always end with masked attempts (to gain the victory); as their excitement grows excessive, they display much wonderful dexterity. Parties drinking according to the rules at first observe good order, but always end with disorder; as their excitement grows excessive, their fun becomes uproarious. In all things it is so. People are at first sincere, but always end with becoming rude; at the commencement things are treated as trivial, but as the end draws near, they assume great proportions. Words are (like) the waves acted on by the wind; the real point of the matters (discussed by them) is lost. The wind and waves are easily set in motion; the success of the matter of which the real point is lost is easily put in peril. Hence quarrels are occasioned by nothing so much as by artful words and one-sided speeches. The breath comes angrily, as when a beast, driven to death, wildly bellows forth its rage. On this animosities arise on both sides. Hasty examination (of the case) eagerly proceeds, and revengeful thoughts arise in their minds; they do not know how. Since they do not know how such thoughts arise, who knows how they will end? Hence the Rules for Speech say, "Let not an internuncius depart from his instructions. Let him not urge on a settlement. If he go beyond the regular rules, he will complicate matters. Departing from his instructions and urging on a settlement imperils negotiations. A good settlement is proved by its lasting long, and a bad settlement cannot be altered - ought he not to be careful?"
Further still, let your mind find its enjoyment in the circumstances of your position; nourish the central course which you pursue, by a reference to your unavoidable obligations. This is the highest object for you to pursue; what else can you do to fulfil the charge (of your father and ruler). The best thing you can do is to be prepared to sacrifice your life; and this is the most difficult thing to do.'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈人間世〉["Man in the World, Associated with other Men"] - 4 :
顏闔將傅衛靈公大子,而問於蘧伯玉曰:「有人於此,其德天殺。與之為無方,則危吾國;與之為有方,則危吾身。其知適足以知人之過,而不知其所以過。若然者,吾奈之何?」蘧伯玉曰:「善哉問乎!戒之慎之,正汝身也哉!形莫若就,心莫若和。雖然,之二者有患。就不欲入,和不欲出。形就而入,且為顛為滅,為崩為蹶。心和而出,且為聲為名,為妖為孽。彼且為嬰兒,亦與之為嬰兒;彼且為無町畦,亦與之為無町畦;彼且為無崖,亦與之為無崖。達之,入於無疵。汝不知夫螳蜋乎?怒其臂以當車轍,不知其不勝任也,是其才之美者也。戒之慎之!積伐而美者以犯之,幾矣。汝不知夫養虎者乎?不敢以生物與之,為其殺之之怒也;不敢以全物與之,為其決之之怒也。時其飢飽,達其怒心。虎之與人異類而媚養己者,順也;故其殺者,逆也。夫愛馬者,以筐盛矢,以蜄盛溺。適有蚉虻僕緣,而拊之不時,則缺銜、毀首、碎胸。意有所至,而愛有所亡,可不慎邪!」

Yan He, being about to undertake the office of Teacher of the eldest son of duke Ling of Wei, consulted Qu Bo-yi. 'Here,' said he, 'is this (young) man, whose natural disposition is as bad as it could be. If I allow him to proceed in a bad way, it will be at the peril of our state; if I insist on his proceeding in a right way, it will be at the peril of my own person. His wisdom is just sufficient to know the errors of other men, but he does not know how he errs himself. What am I to do in such a case?' Qu Bo-yi replied,'Good indeed is your question! Be on your guard; be careful; see that you keep yourself correct! Your best plan will be, with your person to seek association with him, and with your mind to try to be in harmony with him; and yet there are dangers connected with both of these things. While seeking to keep near to him, do not enter into his pursuits; while cultivating a harmony of mind with him, do not show how superior you are to him. If in your personal association you enter into his pursuits, you will fall with him and be ruined, you will tumble down with a crash. If in maintaining a harmony with his mind, you show how different you are from him, he will think you do so for the reputation and the name, and regard you as a creature of evil omen. If you find him to be a mere boy, be you with him as another boy; if you find him one of those who will not have their ground marked out in the ordinary way, do you humour him in this characteristic; if you find him to be free from lofty airs, show yourself to be the same - (ever) leading him on so as to keep him free from faults. Do you not know (the fate of) the praying mantis? It angrily stretches out its arms, to arrest the progress of the carriage, unconscious of its inability for such a task, but showing how much it thinks of its own powers. Be on your guard; be careful. If you cherish a boastful confidence in your own excellence, and place yourself in collision with him, you are likely to incur the fate (of the mantis). Do you not know how those who keep tigers proceed? They do not dare to supply them with living creatures, because of the rage which their killing of them will excite. They do not (even) dare to give them their food whole, because of the rage which their rending of it will excite. They watch till their hunger is appeased, (dealing with them) from their knowledge of their natural ferocity. Tigers are different from men, but they fawn on those who feed them, and do so in accordance with their nature. When any of these are killed by them, it is because they have gone against that nature. Those again who are fond of horses preserve their dung in baskets, and their urine in jars. If musquitoes and gadflies light on them, and the grooms brush them suddenly away, the horses break their bits, injure (the ornaments on) their heads, and smash those on their breasts. The more care that is taken of them, the more does their fondness (for their attendants) disappear. Ought not caution to be exercised (in the management of them)?'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《內篇》[Inner Chapters]
〈人間世〉["Man in the World, Associated with other Men"] - 5 :
匠石之齊,至乎曲轅,見櫟社樹。其大蔽數千牛,絜之百圍,其高臨山十仞而後有枝,其可以為舟者旁十數。觀者如市,匠伯不顧,遂行不輟。弟子厭觀之,走及匠石,曰:「自吾執斧斤以隨夫子,未嘗見材如此其美也。先生不肯視,行不輟,何邪?」曰:「已矣,勿言之矣!散木也,以為舟則沈,以為棺槨則速腐,以為器則速毀,以為門戶則液樠,以為柱則蠹。是不材之木也,無所可用,故能若是之壽。」匠石歸,櫟社見夢曰:「女將惡乎比予哉?若將比予於文木邪?夫柤、梨、橘、柚、果、蓏之屬,實熟則剝,剝則辱,大枝折,小枝泄。此以其能苦其生者也,故不終其天年而中道夭,自掊擊於世俗者也。物莫不若是。且予求無所可用久矣,幾死,乃今得之,為予大用。使予也而有用,且得有此大也邪?且也,若與予也皆物也,奈何哉其相物也?而幾死之散人,又惡知散木!」匠石覺而診其夢。弟子曰:「趣取無用,則為社何邪?」曰:「密!若無言!彼亦直寄焉,以為不知己者詬厲也。不為社者,且幾有翦乎!且也,彼其所保,與眾異,以義譽之,不亦遠乎!」

A (master) mechanic, called Shi, on his way to Qi, came to Qu-yuan, where he saw an oak-tree, which was used as the altar for the spirits of the land. It was so large that an ox standing behind it could not be seen. It measured a hundred spans round, and rose up eighty cubits on the hill before it threw out any branches, after which there were ten or so, from each of which a boat could be hollowed out. People came to see it in crowds as in a market place, but the mechanic did not look round at it, but held on his way without stopping. One of his workmen, however, looked long and admiringly at it, and then ran on to his master, and said to him, 'Since I followed you with my axe and bill, I have never seen such a beautiful mass of timber as this. Why would you, Sir, not look round at it, but went on without stopping?' 'Have done,' said Mr. Shi, 'and do not speak about it. It is quite useless. A boat made from its wood would sink; a coffin or shell would quickly rot; an article of furniture would soon go to pieces; a door would be covered with the exuding sap; a pillar would be riddled by insects; the material of it is good for nothing, and hence it is that it has attained to so great an age.'
When Mr. Shi was returning, the altar-oak appeared to him in a dream, and said, 'What other tree will you compare with me? Will you compare me to one of your ornamental trees? There are hawthorns, pear-trees, orange-trees, pummelo-trees, gourds and other low fruit-bearing plants. When their fruits are ripe, they are knocked down from them, and thrown among the dirt. The large branches are broken, and the smaller are torn away. So it is that their productive ability makes their lives bitter to them; they do not complete their natural term of existence, but come to a premature end in the middle of their time, bringing on themselves the destructive treatment which they ordinarily receive. It is so with all things. I have sought to discover how it was that I was so useless; I had long done so, till (the effort) nearly caused my death; and now I have learned it - it has been of the greatest use to me. Suppose that I had possessed useful properties, should I have become of the great size that I am? And moreover you and I are both things - how should one thing thus pass its judgment on another? how is it that you a useless man know all this about me a useless tree?' When Mr. Shih awoke, he kept thinking about his dream, but the workman said, 'Being so taken with its uselessness, how is it that it yet acts here as the altar for the spirits of the land?' 'Be still,' was the master's reply, 'and do not say a word. It simply happened to grow here; and thus those who do not know it do not speak ill of it as an evil thing. If it were not used as the altar, would it be in danger of being cut down? Moreover, the reason of its being preserved is different from that of the preservation of things generally; is not your explaining it from the sentiment which you have expressed wide of the mark?'