== 장자(莊子) ==
《雜篇》[Miscellaneous Chapters]
〈外物〉[What comes from Without] - 10 :
德溢乎名,名溢乎暴,謀稽乎誸,知出乎爭,柴生乎守,官事果乎眾宜。春雨日時,草木怒生,銚鎒於是乎始修,草木之到植者過半,而不知其然。

'Virtue overflows into (the love of) fame; (the love of) fame overflows into violence; schemes originate in the urgency (of circumstances); (the show of) wisdom comes from rivalry; the fuel (of strife) is produced from the obstinate maintenance (of one's own views); the business of offices should be apportioned in accordance with the approval of all. In spring, when the rain and the sunshine come seasonably, vegetation grows luxuriantly, and sickles and hoes begin to be prepared. More than half of what had fallen down becomes straight, and we do not know how.

== 장자(莊子) ==
《雜篇》[Miscellaneous Chapters]
〈外物〉[What comes from Without] - 11 :
靜然可以補病,眥搣可以休老,寧可以止遽。雖然,若是,勞者之務也,非佚者之所未嘗過而問焉。聖人之所以駴天下,神人未嘗過而問焉;賢人所以駴世,聖人未嘗過而問焉;君子所以駴國,賢人未嘗過而問焉;小人所以合時,君子未嘗過而問焉。

'Stillness and silence are helpful to those who are ill; rubbing the corners of the eyes is helpful to the aged; rest serves to calm agitation; but they are the toiled and troubled who have recourse to these things. Those who are at ease, and have not had such experiences, do not care to ask about them. The spirit-like man has had no experience of how it is that the sagely man keeps the world in awe, and so he does not inquire about it; the sagely man has had no experience of how it is that the man of ability and virtue keeps his age in awe, and so he does not inquire about it; the man of ability and virtue has had no experience of how it is that the superior man keeps his state in awe, and so he does not inquire about it. The superior man has had no experience of how it is that the small man keeps himself in agreement with his times that he should inquire about it.'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《雜篇》[Miscellaneous Chapters]
〈外物〉[What comes from Without] - 12 :
演門有親死者,以善毀,爵為官師,其黨人毀而死者半。堯與許由天下,許由逃之;湯與務光天下,務光怒之。紀他聞之,帥弟子而踆於窾水,諸侯弔之三年,申徒狄因以踣河。

The keeper of the Yan Gate, on the death of his father, showed so much skill in emaciating his person that he received the rank of 'Pattern for Officers.' Half the people of his neighbourhood (in consequence) carried their emaciation to such a point that they died. When Yao wished to resign the throne to Xu You, the latter ran away. When Thang offered his to Wu Guang, Wu Guang became angry. When Ji Ta heard it, he led his disciples, and withdrew to the river Kuan, where the feudal princes came and condoled with him, and after three years, Shen Tu-di threw himself into the water.

== 장자(莊子) ==
《雜篇》[Miscellaneous Chapters]
〈外物〉[What comes from Without] - 13 :
荃者所以在魚,得魚而忘荃;蹄者所以在兔,得兔而忘蹄;言者所以在意,得意而忘言。吾安得忘言之人而與之言哉?」

Fishing-stakes are employed to catch fish; but when the fish are got, the men forget the stakes. Snares are employed to catch hares, but when the hares are got, men forget the snares. Words are employed to convey ideas; but when the ideas are apprehended, men forget the words. Fain would I talk with such a man who has forgot the words!

== 장자(莊子) ==
《雜篇》[Miscellaneous Chapters]
〈寓言〉[Metaphorical Language] - 1 :
寓言十九,重言十七,卮言日出,和以天倪。寓言十九,藉外論之。親父不為其子媒。親父譽之,不若非其父者也;非吾罪也,人之罪也。與己同則應,不與己同則反,同於己為是之,異於己為非之。重言十七,所以已言也,是為耆艾。年先矣,而無經緯本末以期年耆者,是非先也。人而無以先人,無人道也;人而無人道,是之謂陳人。

Of my sentences nine in ten are metaphorical; of my illustrations seven in ten are from valued writers. The rest of my words are like the water that daily fills the cup, tempered and harmonised by the Heavenly element in our nature.
The nine sentences in ten which are metaphorical are borrowed from extraneous things to assist (the comprehension of) my argument. (When it is said, for instance), 'A father does not act the part of matchmaker for his own son,' (the meaning is that) 'it is better for another man to praise the son than for his father to do so.' The use of such metaphorical language is not my fault, but the fault of men (who would not otherwise readily understand me).
Men assent to views which agree with their own, and oppose those which do not so agree. Those which agree with their own they hold to be right, and those which do not so agree they hold to be wrong. The seven out of ten illustrations taken from valued writers are designed to put an end to disputations. Those writers are the men of hoary eld, my predecessors in time. But such as are unversed in the warp and woof, the beginning and end of the subject, cannot be set down as of venerable eld, and regarded as the predecessors of others. If men have not that in them which fits them to precede others, they are without the way proper to man, and they who are without the way proper to man can only be pronounced defunct monuments of antiquity.

卮言日出,和以天倪,因以曼衍,所以窮年。不言則齊,齊與言不齊,言與齊不齊也,故曰無言。言無言,終身言,未嘗言;終身不言,未嘗不言。有自也而可,有自也而不可;有自也而然,有自也而不然。惡乎然?然於然。惡乎不然?不然於不然。惡乎可?可於可。惡乎不可?不可於不可。物固有所然,物固有所可,無物不然,無物不可。非卮言日出,和以天倪,孰得其久!萬物皆種也,以不同形相禪,始卒若環,莫得其倫,是謂天均。天均者,天倪也。

Words like the water that daily issues from the cup, and are harmonised by the Heavenly Element (of our nature), may be carried on into the region of the unlimited, and employed to the end of our years. But without words there is an agreement (in principle). That agreement is not effected by words, and an agreement in words is not effected by it. Hence it is said, 'Let there be no words.' Speech does not need words. One may speak all his life, and not have spoken a (right) word; and one may not have spoken all his life, and yet all his life been giving utterance to the (right) words. There is that which makes a thing allowable, and that which makes a thing not allowable. There is that which makes a thing right, and that which makes a thing not right. How is a thing right? It is right because it is right. How is a thing wrong? It is wrong because it is wrong. How is a thing allowable? It is allowable because it is so. How is a thing not allowable? It is not allowable because it is not so. Things indeed have what makes them right, and what makes them allowable. There is nothing which has not its condition of right; nothing which has not its condition of allowability. But without the words of the (water-) cup in daily use, and harmonised by the Heavenly Element (in our nature), what one can continue long in the possession of these characteristics?
All things are divided into their several classes, and succeed to one another in the same way, though of different bodily forms. They begin and end as in an unbroken ring, though how it is they do so be not apprehended. This is what is called the Lathe of Heaven; and the Lathe of Heaven is the Heavenly Element in our nature.

== 장자(莊子) ==
《雜篇》[Miscellaneous Chapters]
〈寓言〉[Metaphorical Language] - 2 :
莊子謂惠子曰:「孔子行年六十而六十化,始時所是,卒而非之,未知今之所謂是之非五十九年非也。」惠子曰:「孔子勤志服知也。」莊子曰:「孔子謝之矣,而其未之嘗言。孔子云:『夫受才乎大本,復靈以生。』鳴而當律,言而當法,利義陳乎前,而好惡是非直服人之口而已矣。使人乃以心服而不敢蘁立,定天下之定。已乎已乎!吾且不得及彼乎!」

Zhuangzi said to Huizi, 'When Confucius was in his sixtieth year, in that year his views changed. What he had before held to be right, he now ended by holding to be wrong; and he did not know whether the things which he now pronounced to be right were not those which he had for fifty-nine years held to be wrong.' Huizi replied, 'Confucius with an earnest will pursued the acquisition of knowledge, and acted accordingly.' Zhuangzi rejoined, 'Confucius disowned such a course, and never said that it was his. He said, "Man receives his powers from the Great Source (of his being), and he should restore them to their (original) intelligence in his life. His singing should be in accordance with the musical tubes, and his speech a model for imitation. When profit and righteousness are set before him, and his liking (for the latter) and dislike (of the former), his approval and disapproval, are manifested, that only serves to direct the speech of men (about him). To make men in heart submit, and not dare to stand up in opposition to him; to establish the fixed law for all under heaven: ah! ah! I have not attained to that."'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《雜篇》[Miscellaneous Chapters]
〈寓言〉[Metaphorical Language] - 3 :
曾子再仕而心再化,曰:「吾及親仕,三釜而心樂;後仕,三千鍾而不洎,吾心悲。」弟子問於仲尼曰:「若參者,可謂無所縣其罪乎?」曰:「既已縣矣。夫無所縣者,可以有哀乎?彼視三釜、三千鍾,如觀雀蚊虻相過乎前也。」

Zeng-zi twice took office, and on the two occasions his state of mind was different. He said, 'While my parents were alive I took office, and though my emolument was only three fu (of grain), my mind was happy. Afterwards when I took office, my emolument was three thousand zhong; but I could not share it with my parents, and my mind was sad.' The other disciples asked Zhongni, saying, 'Such an one as Shan may be pronounced free from all entanglement: is he to be blamed for feeling as he did?' The reply was, 'But he was subject to entanglement. If he had been free from it, could he have had that sadness? He would have looked on his three fu and three thousand zhong no more than on a heron or a mosquito passing before him.'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《雜篇》[Miscellaneous Chapters]
〈寓言〉[Metaphorical Language] - 4 :
顏成子游謂東郭子綦曰:自吾聞子之言,一年而野,二年而從,三年而通,四年而物,五年而來,六年而鬼入,七年而天成,八年而不知死、不知生,九年而大妙。

Yan Cheng Zi-you said to Dong-guo Zi-qi, 'When I (had begun to) hear your instructions, the first year, I continued a simple rustic; the second year, I became docile; the third year, I comprehended (your teaching); the fourth year, I was (plastic) as a thing; the fifth year, I made advances; the sixth year, the spirit entered (and dwelt in me); the seventh year, (my nature as designed by) Heaven was perfected; the eighth year, I knew no difference between death and life; the ninth year, I attained to the Great Mystery.

生有為,死也。勸公:以其死也,有自也;而生陽也,無自也。而果然乎?惡乎其所適?惡乎其所不適?天有曆數,地有人據,吾惡乎求之?莫知其所終,若之何其無命也?莫知其所始,若之何其有命也?有以相應也,若之何其無鬼邪?無以相應也,若之何其有鬼邪?」

'Life has its work to do, and death ensues, (as if) the common character of each were a thing prescribed. Men consider that their death has its cause; but that life from (the operation of) the Yang has no cause. But is it really so? How does (the Yang) operate in this direction? Why does it not operate there? Heaven has its places and spaces which can be calculated; (the divisions of) the earth can be assigned bv men. But how shall we search for and find out (the conditions of the Great Mystery)? We do not know when and how (life) will end, but how shall we conclude that it is not determined (from without)? and as we do not know when and how it begins, how should we conclude that it is not (so) determined? In regard to the issues of conduct which we deem appropriate, how should we conclude that there are no spirits presiding over them; and where those issues seem inappropriate, how should we conclude that there are spirits presiding over them?'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《雜篇》[Miscellaneous Chapters]
〈寓言〉[Metaphorical Language] - 5 :
眾罔兩問於景曰:「若向也俯而今也仰,向也括而今被髮,向也坐而今也起,向也行而今也止,何也?」景曰:「搜搜也,奚稍問也?予有而不知其所以。予,蜩甲也,蛇蛻也,似之而非也。火與日,吾屯也;陰與夜,吾代也。彼,吾所以有待邪?而況乎以有待者乎!彼來則我與之來,彼往則我與之往,彼強陽則我與之強陽。強陽者,又何以有問乎!」

The penumbrae (once) asked the shadow, saying, 'Formerly you were looking down, and now you are looking up; formerly you had your hair tied up, and now it is dishevelled; formerly you were sitting, and now you have risen up; formerly you were walking, and now you have stopped: how is all this?' The shadow said, 'Venerable Sirs, how do you ask me about such small matters? These things all belong to me, but I do not know how they do so. I am (like) the shell of a cicada or the cast-off skin of a snake - like them, and yet not like them. With light and the sun I make my appearance; with darkness and the night I fade away. Am not I dependent on the substance from which I am thrown? And that substance is itself dependent on something else! When it comes, I come with it; when it goes, I go with it. When it comes under the influence of the strong Yang, I come under the same. Since we are both produced by that strong Yang, what occasion is there for you to question me?'

== 장자(莊子) ==
《雜篇》[Miscellaneous Chapters]
〈寓言〉[Metaphorical Language] - 6 :
陽子居南之沛,老聃西遊於秦,邀於郊,至於梁而遇老子。老子中道仰天而歎曰:「始以汝為可教,今不可也。」陽子居不答。至舍,進盥漱巾櫛,脫屨戶外,膝行而前曰:「向者弟子欲請夫子,夫子行不閒,是以不敢。今閒矣,請問其過。」老子曰:「而睢睢盱盱,而誰與居?大白若辱,盛德若不足。」陽子居蹴然變容曰:「敬聞命矣。」其往也,舍者迎將其家,公執席,妻執巾櫛,舍者避席,煬者避灶。其反也,舍者與之爭席矣。

Yang Zi-ju had gone South to Pei, while Lao Dan was travelling in the west in Qin. (He thereupon) asked (Laozi) to come to the border (of Pei), and went himself to Liang, where he met him. Laozi stood in the middle of the way, and, looking up to heaven, said with a sigh, 'At first I thought that you might be taught, but now I see that you cannot be.' Yang Zi-ju made no reply; and when they came to their lodging-house, he brought in water for the master to wash his hands and rinse his mouth, along with a towel and comb. He then took off his shoes outside the door, went forward on his knees, and said, 'Formerly, your disciple wished to ask you, Master, (the reason of what you said); but you were walking, and there was no opportunity, and therefore I did not presume to speak. Now there is an opportunity, and I beg to ask why you spoke as you did.' Laozi replied, 'Your eyes are lofty, and you stare - who would live with you? The purest carries himself as if he were soiled; the most virtuous seems to feel himself defective.' Yang Zi-ju looked abashed and changed countenance, saying, 'I receive your commands with reverence,'
When he first went to the lodging-house, the people of it met him and went before him. The master of it carried his mat for him, and the mistress brought the towel and comb. The lodgers left their mats, and the cook his fire-place (as he passed them). When he went away, the others in the house would have striven with him about (the places for) their mats.

== 장자(莊子) ==
《雜篇》[Miscellaneous Chapters]
〈讓王〉[Kings who have wished to resign the Throne] - 1 :
堯以天下讓許由,許由不受。又讓於子州支父,子州支父曰:「以為我天子,猶之可也。雖然,我適有幽憂之病,方且治之,未暇治天下也。」夫天下至重也,而不以害其生,又況他物乎!唯無以天下為者,可以託天下也。

Yao proposed to resign the throne to Xu You, who would not accept it. He then offered it to Zi-zhou Zhi-fu, but he said, 'It is not unreasonable to propose that I should occupy the throne, but I happen to be suffering under a painful sorrow and illness. While I am engaged in dealing with it, I have not leisure to govern the kingdom.' Now the throne is the most important of all positions, and yet this man would not occupy it to the injury of his life; how much less would he have allowed any other thing to do so! But only he who does not care to rule the kingdom is fit to be entrusted with it.

舜讓天下於子州支伯,子州支伯曰:「予適有幽憂之病,方且治之,未暇治天下也。」故天下大器也,而不以易生,此有道者之所以異乎俗者也。

Shun proposed to resign the throne to Zi-zhou Zhi-bo, who (likewise) said, 'I happen to be suffering under a painful sorrow and illness. While I am engaged in dealing with it, I have not leisure to govern the kingdom.' Now the kingdom is the greatest of all concerns, and yet this man would not give his life in exchange for the throne. This shows how they who possess the Dao differ from common men.

舜以天下讓善卷,善卷曰:「余立於宇宙之中,冬日衣皮毛,夏日衣葛絺;春耕種,形足以勞動;秋收斂,身足以休息;日出而作,日入而息,逍遙於天地之間而心意自得。吾何以天下為哉?悲夫!子之不知余也!」遂不受。於是去而入深山,莫知其處。

Shun proposed to resign the throne to Shan Juan, who said, 'I am a unit in the midst of space and time. In winter I wear skins and furs; in summer, grass-cloth and linen; in spring I plough and sow, my strength being equal to the toil; in autumn I gather in my harvest, and am prepared to cease from labour and eat. At sunrise I get up and work; at sunset I rest. So do I enjoy myself between heaven and earth, and my mind is content: why should I have anything to do with the throne? Alas! that you, Sir, do not know me better!' Thereupon he declined the proffer, and went away, deep among the hills, no man knew where.

舜以天下讓其友石戶之農,石戶之農曰:「捲捲乎后之為人,葆力之士也。」以舜之德為未至也,於是夫負妻戴,攜子以入於海,終身不反也。

Shun proposed to resign the throne to his friend, a farmer of Shi-hu. The farmer, however, said (to himself), 'How full of vigor does our lord show himself, and how exuberant is his strength! If Shun with all his powers be not equal (to the task of government, how should I be so?)' On this he took his wife on his back, led his son by the hand, and went away to the sea-coast, from which to the end of his life he did not come back.

== 장자(莊子) ==
《雜篇》[Miscellaneous Chapters]
〈讓王〉[Kings who have wished to resign the Throne] - 2 :
大王亶父居邠,狄人攻之。事之以皮帛而不受,事之以犬馬而不受,事之以珠玉而不受,狄人之所求者土地也。大王亶父曰:「與人之兄居而殺其弟,與人之父居而殺其子,吾不忍也。子皆勉居矣!為吾臣與為狄人臣,奚以異?且吾聞之,不以所用養害所養。」因杖筴而去之。民相連而從之,遂成國於岐山之下。夫大王亶父可謂能尊生矣。能尊生者,雖貴富不以養傷身,雖貧賤不以利累形。今世之人,居高官尊爵者,皆重失之,見利輕亡其身,豈不惑哉!

When Dai-wang Dan-fu was dwelling in Bin, the wild tribes of the North attacked him. He tried to serve them with skins and silks, but they were not satisfied. He tried to serve them with dogs and horses, but they were not satisfied, and then with pearls and jade, but they were not satisfied. What they sought was his territory. Dai-wang Dan-fu said (to his people), 'To dwell with the elder brother and cause the younger brother to be killed, or with the father and cause the son to be killed,-- this is what I cannot bear to do. Make an effort, my children, to remain here. What difference is there between being my subjects, or the subjects of those wild people? And I have heard that a man does not use that which he employs for nourishing his people to injure them.' Thereupon he took his staff and switch and left, but the people followed him in an unbroken train, and he established a (new) state at the foot of mount Qi. Thus Dai-wang Dan-fu might be pronounced one who could give its (due) honour to life. Those who are able to do so, though they may be rich and noble, will not, for that which nourishes them, injure their persons; and though they may be poor and mean, will not, for the sake of gain, involve their bodies (in danger). The men of the present age who occupy high offices and are of honourable rank all lose these (advantages) again, and in the prospect of gain lightly expose their persons to ruin: is it not a case of delusion?

== 장자(莊子) ==
《雜篇》[Miscellaneous Chapters]
〈讓王〉[Kings who have wished to resign the Throne] - 3 :
越人三世弒其君,王子搜患之,逃乎丹穴。而越國無君,求王子搜不得,從之丹穴。王子搜不肯出,越人薰之以艾,乘以王輿。王子搜援綏登車,仰天而呼曰:「君乎君乎!獨不可以舍我乎!」王子搜非惡為君也,惡為君之患也。若王子搜者,可謂不以國傷生矣,此固越人之所欲得為君也。

The people of Yue three times in succession killed their ruler, and the prince Sou, distressed by it, made his escape to the caves of Dan, so that Yue was left without a ruler. The people sought for the prince, but could not find him, till (at last) they followed him to the cave of Dan. The prince was not willing to come out to them, but they smoked him out with moxa, and made him mount the royal chariot. As he took hold of the strap, and mounted the carriage, he looked up to heaven, and called out, '0 Ruler, 0 Ruler, could you not have spared me this?' Prince Sou did not dislike being ruler - he disliked the evil inseparable from being so. It may be said of him that he would not for the sake of a kingdom endanger his life; and this indeed was the reason why the people of Yue wanted to get him for their ruler.

== 장자(莊子) ==
《雜篇》[Miscellaneous Chapters]
〈讓王〉[Kings who have wished to resign the Throne] - 4 :
韓、魏相與爭侵地。子華子見昭僖侯,昭僖侯有憂色。子華子曰:「今使天下書銘於君之前,書之言曰:『左手攫之則右手廢,右手攫之則左手廢,然而攫之者必有天下。』君能攫之乎?」昭僖侯曰:「寡人不攫也。」子華子曰:「甚善!自是觀之,兩臂重於天下也,身亦重於兩臂。韓之輕於天下亦遠矣,今之所爭者,其輕於韓又遠。君固愁身傷生以憂戚不得也!」僖侯曰:「善哉!教寡人者眾矣,未嘗得聞此言也。」子華子可謂知輕重矣。

Han and Wei were contending about some territory which one of them had wrested from the other. Zi-hua Zi went to see the marquis Zhao-xi (of Han), and, finding him looking sorrowful, said, 'Suppose now that all the states were to sign an agreement before you to the effect that "Whoever should with his left hand carry off (the territory in dispute) should lose his right hand, and whoever should do so with his right hand should lose his left hand, but that, nevertheless, he who should carry it off was sure to obtain the whole kingdom;" would your lordship feel yourself able to carry it off?' The marquis said, 'I would not carry it off,' and Zi-hua rejoined, 'Very good. Looking at the thing from this point of view, your two arms are of more value to you than the whole kingdom. But your body is of more value than your two arms, and Han is of much less value than the whole kingdom. The territory for which you are now contending is further much less important than Han: your lordship, since you feel so much concern for your body, should not be endangering your life by indulging your sorrow.' The marquis Zhao-xi said, 'Good! Many have given me their counsel about this matter; but I never heard what you have said.' Zi-hua Zi may be said to have known well what was of great importance and what was of little.

== 장자(莊子) ==
《雜篇》[Miscellaneous Chapters]
〈讓王〉[Kings who have wished to resign the Throne] - 5 :
魯君聞顏闔得道之人也,使人以幣先焉。顏闔守陋閭,苴布之衣而自飯牛。魯君之使者至,顏闔自對之。使者曰:「此顏闔之家與?」顏闔對曰:「此闔之家也。」使者致幣,顏闔曰:「恐聽者謬而遺使者罪,不若審之。」使者還,反審之,復來求之,則不得已。故若顏闔者,真惡富貴也。

The ruler of Lu, having heard that Yan He had attained to the Dao, sent a messenger, with a gift of silks, to prepare the way for further communication with him. Yan He was waiting at the door of a mean house, in a dress of coarse hempen cloth, and himself feeding a cow. When the messenger arrived, Yan He himself confronted him. The messenger asked, 'Is this the house of Yan He?' 'It is,' was the reply; and the other was presenting the silks to him, when he said, 'I am afraid you heard (your instructions) wrongly, and that he who sent you will blame you. You had better make sure.' The messenger on this returned, and made sure that he was right; but when he came back, and sought for Yan He, he was not to be found. Yes; men like Yan He do of a truth dislike riches and honours.