== 중용 영문(中庸 英文) ==
[The Doctrine of the Mean]
07. 第六章
子曰:「舜其大知也與!舜好問而好察邇言,隱惡而揚善,執其兩端,用其中於民,其斯以為舜乎!」
The Master said, "There was Shun: He indeed was greatly wise! Shun loved to question others, and to study their words, though they might be shallow. He concealed what was bad in them and displayed what was good. He took hold of their two extremes, determined the Mean, and employed it in his government of the people. It was by this that he was Shun!"

== 중용 영문(中庸 英文) ==
[The Doctrine of the Mean]
08. 第七章
子曰:「人皆曰『予知』,驅而納諸罟擭陷阱之中,而莫之知辟也。人皆曰『予知』,擇乎中庸,而不能期月守也。」
The Master said "Men all say, 'We are wise'; but being driven forward and taken in a net, a trap, or a pitfall, they know not how to escape. Men all say, 'We are wise'; but happening to choose the course of the Mean, they are not able to keep it for a round month."

== 중용 영문(中庸 英文) ==
[The Doctrine of the Mean]
09. 第八章
子曰:「回之為人也,擇乎中庸,得一善,則拳拳服膺而弗失之矣。」
The Master said "This was the manner of Hui: he made choice of the Mean, and whenever he got hold of what was good, he clasped it firmly, as if wearing it on his breast, and did not lose it."

== 중용 영문(中庸 英文) ==
[The Doctrine of the Mean]
10. 第九章
子曰:「天下國家可均也,爵祿可辭也,白刃可蹈也,中庸不可能也。」
The Master said, "The kingdom, its states, and its families, may be perfectly ruled; dignities and emoluments may be declined; naked weapons may be trampled under the feet; but the course of the Mean cannot be attained to."

== 중용 영문(中庸 英文) ==
[The Doctrine of the Mean]
11. 第十章
子路問強。子曰:「南方之強與?北方之強與?抑而強與?寬柔以教,不報無道,南方之強也,君子居之。衽金革,死而不厭,北方之強也,而強者居之。故君子和而不流,強哉矯!中立而不倚,強哉矯!國有道,不變塞焉,強哉矯!國無道,至死不變,強哉矯!」
Zi-lu asked about energy. The Master said, "Do you mean the energy of the South, the energy of the North, or the energy which you should cultivate yourself? To show forbearance and gentleness in teaching others; and not to revenge unreasonable conduct - this is the energy of southern regions, and the good man makes it his study. To lie under arms; and meet death without regret - this is the energy of northern regions, and the forceful make it their study. Therefore, the superior man cultivates a friendly harmony, without being weak. How firm is he in his energy! He stands erect in the middle, without inclining to either side. How firm is he in his energy! When good principles prevail in the government of his country, he does not change from what he was in retirement. How firm is he in his energy! When bad principles prevail in the country, he maintains his course to death without changing. How firm is he in his energy!"

== 중용 영문(中庸 英文) ==
[The Doctrine of the Mean]
12. 第十一章
子曰:「素隱行怪,後世有述焉,吾弗為之矣。君子遵道而行,半涂而廢,吾弗能已矣。君子依乎中庸,遁世不見知而不悔,唯聖者能之。
The Master said, "To live in obscurity, and yet practice wonders, in order to be mentioned with honor in future ages:-this is what I do not do. The good man tries to proceed according to the right path, but when he has gone halfway, he abandons it:-I am not able so to stop. The superior man accords with the course of the Mean. Though he may be all unknown, unregarded by the world, he feels no regret. It is only the sage who is able for this.

== 중용 영문(中庸 英文) ==
[The Doctrine of the Mean]
13. 第十二章
君子之道費而隱。夫婦之愚,可以與知焉,及其至也,雖聖人亦有所不知焉;夫婦之不肖,可以能行焉,及其至也,雖聖人亦有所不能焉。天地之大也,人猶有所憾,故君子語大,天下莫能載焉;語小,天下莫能破焉。《詩》云:『鳶飛戾天,魚躍于淵。』言其上下察也。君子之道,造端乎夫婦,及其至也,察乎天地。」
The way which the superior man pursues, reaches wide and far, and yet is secret. Common men and women, however ignorant, may intermeddle with the knowledge of it; yet in its utmost reaches, there is that which even the sage does not know. Common men and women, however much below the ordinary standard of character, can carry it into practice; yet in its utmost reaches, there is that which even the sage is not able to carry into practice. Great as heaven and earth are, men still find some things in them with which to be dissatisfied. Thus it is that, were the superior man to speak of his way in all its greatness, nothing in the world would be found able to embrace it, and were he to speak of it in its minuteness, nothing in the world would be found able to split it. It is said in the Book of Poetry, "The hawk flies up to heaven; the fishes leap in the deep." This expresses how this way is seen above and below. The way of the superior man may be found, in its simple elements, in the intercourse of common men and women; but in its utmost reaches, it shines brightly through heaven and earth.

== 중용 영문(中庸 英文) ==
[The Doctrine of the Mean]
14. 第十三章
子曰:「道不遠人。人之為道而遠人,不可以為道。《詩》云:『伐柯伐柯,其則不遠。』執柯以伐柯,睨而視之,猶以為遠。故君子以人治人,改而止。忠恕違道不遠,施諸己而不愿,亦勿施於人。君子之道四,丘未能一焉:所求乎子以事父,未能也;所求乎臣以事君,未能也;所求乎弟以事兄,未能也;所求乎朋友先施之,未能也。庸德之行,庸言之謹,有所不足,不敢不勉,有餘不敢盡;言顧行,行顧言,君子胡不慥慥爾!
The Master said "The path is not far from man. When men try to pursue a course, which is far from the common indications of consciousness, this course cannot be considered The Path. In the Book of Poetry, it is said, 'In hewing an ax handle, in hewing an ax handle, the pattern is not far off. We grasp one ax handle to hew the other; and yet, if we look askance from the one to the other, we may consider them as apart. Therefore, the superior man governs men, according to their nature, with what is proper to them, and as soon as they change what is wrong, he stops. When one cultivates to the utmost the principles of his nature, and exercises them on the principle of reciprocity, he is not far from the path. What you do not like when done to yourself, do not do to others. In the way of the superior man there are four things, to not one of which have I as yet attained.-To serve my father, as I would require my son to serve me: to this I have not attained; to serve my prince as I would require my minister to serve me: to this I have not attained; to serve my elder brother as I would require my younger brother to serve me: to this I have not attained; to set the example in behaving to a friend, as I would require him to behave to me: to this I have not attained. Earnest in practicing the ordinary virtues, and careful in speaking about them, if, in his practice, he has anything defective, the superior man dares not but exert himself; and if, in his words, he has any excess, he dares not allow himself such license. Thus his words have respect to his actions, and his actions have respect to his words; is it not just an entire sincerity which marks the superior man?

== 중용 영문(中庸 英文) ==
[The Doctrine of the Mean]
15. 第十四章
君子素其位而行,不愿乎其外。素富貴,行乎富貴;素貧賤,行乎貧賤;素夷狄,行乎夷狄;素患難,行乎患難:君子無入而不自得焉。在上位不陵下,在下位不援上,正己而不求於人,則無怨。上不怨天,下不尤人。故君子居易以俟命,小人行險以徼幸。」子曰:「射有似乎君子,失諸正鵠,反求諸其身。
The superior man does what is proper to the station in which he is; he does not desire to go beyond this. In a position of wealth and honor, he does what is proper to a position of wealth and honor. In a poor and low position, he does what is proper to a poor and low position. Situated among barbarous tribes, he does what is proper to a situation among barbarous tribes. In a position of sorrow and difficulty, he does what is proper to a position of sorrow and difficulty. The superior man can find himself in no situation in which he is not himself. In a high situation, he does not treat with contempt his inferiors. In a low situation, he does not court the favor of his superiors. He rectifies himself, and seeks for nothing from others, so that he has no dissatisfactions. He does not murmur against Heaven, nor grumble against men. Thus it is that the superior man is quiet and calm, waiting for the appointments of Heaven, while the mean man walks in dangerous paths, looking for lucky occurrences. The Master said, "In archery we have something like the way of the superior man. When the archer misses the center of the target, he turns round and seeks for the cause of his failure in himself.

== 중용 영문(中庸 英文) ==
[The Doctrine of the Mean]
16. 第十五章
君子之道,辟如行遠必自邇,辟如登高必自卑。《詩》曰:『妻子好合,如鼓瑟琴;兄弟既翕,和樂且耽。宜爾室家,樂爾妻帑。』」子曰:「父母其順矣乎!」
The way of the superior man may be compared to what takes place in traveling, when to go to a distance we must first traverse the space that is near, and in ascending a height, when we must begin from the lower ground. It is said in the Book of Poetry, "Happy union with wife and children is like the music of lutes and harps. When there is concord among brethren, the harmony is delightful and enduring. Thus may you regulate your family, and enjoy the pleasure of your wife and children." The Master said, "In such a state of things, parents have entire complacence!"

== 중용 영문(中庸 英文) ==
[The Doctrine of the Mean]
17. 第十六章
子曰:「鬼神之為德,其盛矣乎!視之而弗見,聽之而弗聞,體物而不可遺。使天下之人齊明盛服,以承祭祀,洋洋乎如在其上,如在其左右。《詩》曰:『神之格思,不可度思!矧可射思!』夫微之顯,誠之不可掩如此夫。」
The Master said, "How abundantly do spiritual beings display the powers that belong to them! We look for them, but do not see them; we listen to, but do not hear them; yet they enter into all things, and there is nothing without them. They cause all the people in the kingdom to fast and purify themselves, and array themselves in their richest dresses, in order to attend at their sacrifices. Then, like overflowing water, they seem to be over the heads, and on the right and left of their worshippers. It is said in the Book of Poetry, 'The approaches of the spirits, you cannot surmise; and can you treat them with indifference?' Such is the manifestness of what is minute! Such is the impossibility of repressing the outgoings of sincerity!"

== 중용 영문(中庸 英文) ==
[The Doctrine of the Mean]
18. 第十七章
子曰:「舜其大孝也與!德為聖人,尊為天子,富有四海之內。宗廟饗之,子孫保之。故大德必得其位,必得其祿,必得其名,必得其壽。故天之生物,必因其材而篤焉。故栽者培之,傾者覆之。《詩》曰:『嘉樂君子,憲憲令德!宜民宜人,受祿于天。保佑命之,自天申之!』故大德者必受命。」
The Master said, "How greatly filial was Shun! His virtue was that of a sage; his dignity was the throne; his riches were all within the four seas. He offered his sacrifices in his ancestral temple, and his descendants preserved the sacrifices to himself. Therefore having such great virtue, it could not but be that he should obtain the throne, that he should obtain those riches, that he should obtain his fame, that he should attain to his long life. Thus it is that Heaven, in the production of things, is sure to be bountiful to them, according to their qualities. Hence the tree that is flourishing, it nourishes, while that which is ready to fall, it overthrows. In the Book of Poetry, it is said, 'The admirable amiable prince displayed conspicuously his excelling virtue, adjusting his people, and adjusting his officers. Therefore, he received from Heaven his emoluments of dignity. It protected him, assisted him, decreed him the throne; sending from Heaven these favors, as it were repeatedly.' We may say therefore that he who is greatly virtuous will be sure to receive the appointment of Heaven."

== 중용 영문(中庸 英文) ==
[The Doctrine of the Mean]
19. 第十八章
子曰:「無憂者其惟文王乎!以王季為父,以武王為子,父作之,子述之。武王纘大王、王季、文王之緒,壹戎衣而有天下,身不失天下之顯名;尊為天子,富有四海之內。宗廟饗之,子孫保之。武王末受命,周公成文、武之德,追王大王、王季,上祀先公以天子之禮。斯禮也,達乎諸侯、大夫及士、庶人。父為大夫,子為士,葬以大夫,祭以士。父為士,子為大夫,葬以士,祭以大夫。期之喪,達乎大夫;三年之喪,達乎天子;父母之喪,無貴賤,一也。」
The Master said, "It is only King Wen of whom it can be said that he had no cause for grief! His father was King Ji, and his son was King Wu. His father laid the foundations of his dignity, and his son transmitted it. King Wu continued the enterprise of King Tai, King Ji, and King Wen. He once buckled on his armor, and got possession of the kingdom. He did not lose the distinguished personal reputation which he had throughout the kingdom. His dignity was the royal throne. His riches were the possession of all within the four seas. He offered his sacrifices in his ancestral temple, and his descendants maintained the sacrifices to himself. It was in his old age that King Wu received the appointment to the throne, and the duke of Zhou completed the virtuous course of Wen and Wu. He carried up the title of king to Tai and Ji, and sacrificed to all the former dukes above them with the royal ceremonies. And this rule he extended to the princes of the kingdom, the great officers, the scholars, and the common people. If the father were a great officer and the son a scholar, then the burial was that due to a great officer, and the sacrifice that due to a scholar. If the father were a scholar and the son a great officer, then the burial was that due to a scholar, and the sacrifice that due to a great officer. The one year's mourning was made to extend only to the great officers, but the three years' mourning extended to the Son of Heaven. In the mourning for a father or mother, he allowed no difference between the noble and the mean.

== 중용 영문(中庸 英文) ==
[The Doctrine of the Mean]
20. 第十九章
子曰:「武王、周公,其達孝矣乎!夫孝者:善繼人之志,善述人之事者也。春、秋修其祖廟,陳其宗器,設其裳衣,薦其時食。宗廟之禮,所以序昭穆也;序爵,所以辨貴賤也;序事,所以辨賢也;旅酬下為上,所以逮賤也;燕毛,所以序齒也。踐其位,行其禮,奏其樂,敬其所尊,愛其所親,事死如事生,事亡如事存,孝之至也。郊社之禮,所以事上帝也;宗廟之禮,所以祀乎其先也。明乎郊社之禮、禘嘗之義,治國其如示諸掌乎!」
The Master said, "How far-extending was the filial piety of King Wu and the duke of Zhou! Now filial piety is seen in the skillful carrying out of the wishes of our forefathers, and the skillful carrying forward of their undertakings. In spring and autumn, they repaired and beautified the temple halls of their fathers, set forth their ancestral vessels, displayed their various robes, and presented the offerings of the several seasons. By means of the ceremonies of the ancestral temple, they distinguished the royal kindred according to their order of descent. By ordering the parties present according to their rank, they distinguished the more noble and the less. By the arrangement of the services, they made a distinction of talents and worth. In the ceremony of general pledging, the inferiors presented the cup to their superiors, and thus something was given the lowest to do. At the concluding feast, places were given according to the hair, and thus was made the distinction of years. They occupied the places of their forefathers, practiced their ceremonies, and performed their music. They reverenced those whom they honored, and loved those whom they regarded with affection. Thus they served the dead as they would have served them alive; they served the departed as they would have served them had they been continued among them - the height of filial piety. By the ceremonies of the sacrifices to Heaven and Earth they served God, and by the ceremonies of the ancestral temple they sacrificed to their ancestors. He who understands the ceremonies of the sacrifices to Heaven and Earth, and the meaning of the several sacrifices to ancestors, would find the government of a kingdom as easy as to look into his palm!"

== 중용 영문(中庸 英文) ==
[The Doctrine of the Mean]
21. 第二十章
哀公問政。子曰:「文、武之政,布在方策,其人存,則其政舉;其人亡,則其政息。人道敏政,地道敏樹。夫政也者,蒲盧也。故為政在人,取人以身,修身以道,修道以仁。仁者人也,親親為大;義者宜也,尊賢為大。親親之殺,尊賢之等,禮所生也。在下位不獲乎上,民不可得而治矣!故君子不可以不修身;思修身,不可以不事親;思事親,不可以不知人;思知人,不可以不知天。天下之達道五,所以行之者三,曰:君臣也,父子也,夫婦也,昆弟也,朋友之交也,五者天下之達道也。知仁勇三者,天下之達德也,所以行之者一也。或生而知之,或學而知之,或困而知之,及其知之,一也;或安而行之,或利而行之,或勉強而行之,及其成功,一也。」
The Duke Ai asked about government. The Master said, "The government of Wen and Wu is displayed in the records - the tablets of wood and bamboo. Let there be the men and the government will flourish; but without the men, their government decays and ceases. With the right men the growth of government is rapid, just as vegetation is rapid in the earth; and, moreover, their government might be called an easily-growing rush. Therefore the administration of government lies in getting proper men. Such men are to be got by means of the ruler's own character. That character is to be cultivated by his treading in the ways of duty. And the treading those ways of duty is to be cultivated by the cherishing of benevolence. Benevolence is the characteristic element of humanity, and the great exercise of it is in loving relatives. Righteousness is the accordance of actions with what is right, and the great exercise of it is in honoring the worthy. The decreasing measures of the love due to relatives, and the steps in the honor due to the worthy, are produced by the principle of propriety. When those in inferior situations do not possess the confidence of their superiors, they cannot retain the government of the people. Hence the sovereign may not neglect the cultivation of his own character. Wishing to cultivate his character, he may not neglect to serve his parents. In order to serve his parents, he may not neglect to acquire knowledge of men. In order to know men, he may not dispense with a knowledge of Heaven. The duties of universal obligation are five and the virtues wherewith they are practiced are three. The duties are those between sovereign and minister, between father and son, between husband and wife, between elder brother and younger, and those belonging to the intercourse of friends. Those five are the duties of universal obligation. Knowledge, magnanimity, and energy, these three, are the virtues universally binding. And the means by which they carry the duties into practice is singleness. Some are born with the knowledge of those duties; some know them by study; and some acquire the knowledge after a painful feeling of their ignorance. But the knowledge being possessed, it comes to the same thing. Some practice them with a natural ease; some from a desire for their advantages; and some by strenuous effort. But the achievement being made, it comes to the same thing."