== 맹자3 영문(孟子3 英文) ==
[Mencius]
10. 告子上 4
孟子曰:「何以謂仁內義外也?」
"Mencius asked him, 'What is the ground of your saying that benevolence is internal and righteousness external?' "

== 맹자3 영문(孟子3 英文) ==
[Mencius]
11. 告子上 4
曰:「彼長而我長之,非有長於我也;猶彼白而我白之,從其白於外也,故謂之外也。」
"He replied, 'There is a man older than I, and I give honour to his age. It is not that there is first in me a principle of such reverence to age. It is just as when there is a white man, and I consider him white; according as he is so externally to me. On this account, I pronounce of righteousness that it is external.' "

== 맹자3 영문(孟子3 英文) ==
[Mencius]
12. 告子上 4
曰:「異於白馬之白也,無以異於白人之白也;不識長馬之長也,無以異於長人之長與?且謂長者義乎?長之者義乎?」
"Mencius said, 'There is no difference between our pronouncing a white horse to be white and our pronouncing a white man to be white. But is there no difference between the regard with which we acknowledge the age of an old horse and that with which we acknowledge the age of an old man? And what is it which is called righteousness? The fact of a man's being old? Or the fact of our giving honour to his age?' "

== 맹자3 영문(孟子3 英文) ==
[Mencius]
13. 告子上 4
曰:「吾弟則愛之,秦人之弟則不愛也,是以我為悅者也,故謂之內。長楚人之長,亦長吾之長,是以長為悅者也,故謂之外也。」
"Gao said, 'There is my younger brother; I love him. But the younger brother of a man of Qin I do not love: that is, the feeling is determined by myself, and therefore I say that benevolence is internal. On the other hand, I give honour to an old man of Chu, and I also give honour to an old man of my own people: that is, the feeling is determined by the age, and therefore I say that righteousness is external.' "

== 맹자3 영문(孟子3 英文) ==
[Mencius]
14. 告子上 4
曰:「耆秦人之炙,無以異於耆吾炙。夫物則亦有然者也,然則耆炙亦有外與?」
"Mencius answered him, 'Our enjoyment of meat roasted by a man of Qin does not differ from our enjoyment of meat roasted by ourselves. Thus, what you insist on takes place also in the case of such things, and will you say likewise that our enjoyment of a roast is external?' "

== 맹자3 영문(孟子3 英文) ==
[Mencius]
15. 告子上 5
孟季子問公都子曰:「何以謂義內也?」曰:「行吾敬,故謂之內也。」
"The disciple Meng Ji asked Gong Du, saying, 'On what ground is it said that righteousness is internal?' Gong Du replied, 'We therein act out our feeling of respect, and therefore it is said to be internal.' "

== 맹자3 영문(孟子3 英文) ==
[Mencius]
16. 告子上 5
「鄉人長於伯兄一歲,則誰敬?」曰:「敬兄。」
"The other objected, 'Suppose the case of a villager older than your elder brother by one year, to which of them would you show the greater respect?' 'To my brother,' was the reply. "

== 맹자3 영문(孟子3 英文) ==
[Mencius]
17. 告子上 5
「酌則誰先?」曰:「先酌鄉人。」
'But for which of them would you first pour out wine at a feast?' 'For the villager.'

== 맹자3 영문(孟子3 英文) ==
[Mencius]
18. 告子上 5
「所敬在此,所長在彼,果在外,非由內也。」
"Meng Ji argued, 'Now your feeling of reverence rests on the one, and now the honour due to age is rendered to the other - this is certainly determined by what is without, and does not proceed from within.' "

== 맹자3 영문(孟子3 英文) ==
[Mencius]
19. 告子上 5
公都子不能答,以告孟子。孟子曰:「敬叔父乎?敬弟乎?彼將曰『敬叔父』。曰:『弟為尸,則誰敬?』彼將曰『敬弟。』子曰:『惡在其敬叔父也?』彼將曰『在位故也。』子亦曰:『在位故也。庸敬在兄,斯須之敬在鄉人。』」
"Gong Du was unable to reply, and told the conversation to Mencius. Mencius said, 'You should ask him, ""Which do you respect most, your uncle, or your younger brother?"" He will answer, ""My uncle."" Ask him again, ""If your younger brother be personating a dead ancestor, to which do you show the greater respect, to him or to your uncle?"" He will say, ""To my younger brother."" You can go on, ""But where is the respect due, as you said, to your uncle?"" He will reply to this, ""I show the respect to my younger brother, because of the position which he occupies,"" and you can likewise say, ""So my respect to the villager is because of the position which he occupies. Ordinarily, my respect is rendered to my elder brother; for a brief season, on occasion, it is rendered to the villager.""' "

== 맹자3 영문(孟子3 英文) ==
[Mencius]
20. 告子上 5
季子聞之曰:「敬叔父則敬,敬弟則敬,果在外,非由內也。」
"Meng Ji heard this and observed, 'When respect is due to my uncle, I respect him, and when respect is due to my younger brother, I respect him; the thing is certainly determined by what is without, and does not proceed from within.' "

== 맹자3 영문(孟子3 英文) ==
[Mencius]
21. 告子上 5
公都子曰:「冬日則飲湯,夏日則飲水,然則飲食亦在外也?」
"Gong Du replied, 'In winter we drink things hot, in summer we drink things cold; and so, on your principle, eating and drinking also depend on what is external!' "

== 맹자3 영문(孟子3 英文) ==
[Mencius]
22. 告子上 6
公都子曰:「告子曰:『性無善無不善也。』或曰:『性可以為善,可以為不善;是故文武興,則民好善;幽厲興,則民好暴。』或曰:『有性善,有性不善;是故以堯為君而有象,以瞽瞍為父而有舜;以紂為兄之子且以為君,而有微子啟、王子比干。』今曰『性善』,然則彼皆非與?」
"The disciple Gong Du said, 'The philosopher Gao says, ""Man's nature is neither good nor bad."" Some say, ""Man's nature may be made to practise good, and it may be made to practise evil, and accordingly, under Wen and Wu, the people loved what was good, while under Yu and Li, they loved what was cruel."" Some say, ""The nature of some is good, and the nature of others is bad. Hence it was that under such a sovereign as Yao there yet appeared Xiang; that with such a father as Gu Sou there yet appeared Shun; and that with Zhou for their sovereign, and the son of their elder brother besides, there were found Qi, the viscount of Wei, and the prince Bi Gan. And now you say, ""The nature is good."" Then are all those wrong?' "

== 맹자3 영문(孟子3 英文) ==
[Mencius]
23. 告子上 6
孟子曰:「乃若其情,則可以為善矣,乃所謂善也。若夫為不善,非才之罪也。惻隱之心,人皆有之;羞惡之心,人皆有之;恭敬之心,人皆有之;是非之心,人皆有之。惻隱之心,仁也;羞惡之心,義也;恭敬之心,禮也;是非之心,智也。仁義禮智,非由外鑠我也,我固有之也,弗思耳矣。故曰:『求則得之,舍則失之。』或相倍蓰而無算者,不能盡其才者也。《詩》曰:『天生蒸民,有物有則。民之秉夷,好是懿德。』孔子曰:『為此詩者,其知道乎!故有物必有則,民之秉夷也,故好是懿德。』」
"Mencius said, 'From the feelings proper to it, it is constituted for the practice of what is good. This is what I mean in saying that the nature is good. If men do what is not good, the blame cannot be imputed to their natural powers. The feeling of commiseration belongs to all men; so does that of shame and dislike; and that of reverence and respect; and that of approving and disapproving. The feeling of commiseration implies the principle of benevolence; that of shame and dislike, the principle of righteousness; that of reverence and respect, the principle of propriety; and that of approving and disapproving, the principle of knowledge. Benevolence, righteousness, propriety, and knowledge are not infused into us from without. We are certainly furnished with them. And a different view is simply owing to want of reflection. Hence it is said, ""Seek and you will find them. Neglect and you will lose them."" Men differ from one another in regard to them - some as much again as others, some five times as much, and some to an incalculable amount - it is because they cannot carry out fully their natural powers. It is said in the Book of Poetry, ""Heaven in producing mankind, Gave them their various faculties and relations with their specific laws. These are the invariable rules of nature for all to hold, And all love this admirable virtue."" Confucius said, ""The maker of this ode knew indeed the principle of our nature!"" We may thus see that every faculty and relation must have its law, and since there are invariable rules for all to hold, they consequently love this admirable virtue.' "

== 맹자3 영문(孟子3 英文) ==
[Mencius]
24. 告子上 7
孟子曰:「富歲,子弟多賴;凶歲,子弟多暴,非天之降才爾殊也,其所以陷溺其心者然也。今夫麰麥,播種而耰之,其地同,樹之時又同,浡然而生,至於日至之時,皆熟矣。雖有不同,則地有肥磽,雨露之養,人事之不齊也。故凡同類者,舉相似也,何獨至於人而疑之?聖人與我同類者。故龍子曰:『不知足而為屨,我知其不為蕢也。』屨之相似,天下之足同也。口之於味,有同耆也。易牙先得我口之所耆者也。如使口之於味也,其性與人殊,若犬馬之與我不同類也,則天下何耆皆從易牙之於味也?至於味,天下期於易牙,是天下之口相似也惟耳亦然。至於聲,天下期於師曠,是天下之耳相似也。惟目亦然。至於子都,天下莫不知其姣也。不知子都之姣者,無目者也。故曰:口之於味也,有同耆焉;耳之於聲也,有同聽焉;目之於色也,有同美焉。至於心,獨無所同然乎?心之所同然者何也?謂理也,義也。聖人先得我心之所同然耳。故理義之悅我心,猶芻豢之悅我口。」
"Mencius said, 'In good years the children of the people are most of them good, while in bad years the most of them abandon themselves to evil. It is not owing to any difference of their natural powers conferred by Heaven that they are thus different. The abandonment is owing to the circumstances through which they allow their minds to be ensnared and drowned in evil. There now is barley. Let it be sown and covered up; the ground being the same, and the time of sowing likewise the same, it grows rapidly up, and, when the full time is come, it is all found to be ripe. Although there may be inequalities of produce, that is owing to the difference of the soil, as rich or poor, to the unequal nourishment afforded by the rains and dews, and to the different ways in which man has performed his business in reference to it. Thus all things which are the same in kind are like to one another; why should we doubt in regard to man, as if he were a solitary exception to this? The sage and we are the same in kind. In accordance with this the scholar Long said, ""If a man make hempen sandals without knowing the size of people's feet, yet I know that he will not make them like baskets."" Sandals are all like one another, because all men's feet are like one another. So with the mouth and flavours - all mouths have the same relishes. Yi Ya only apprehended before me what my mouth relishes. Suppose that his mouth in its relish for flavours differed from that of other men, as is the case with dogs or horses which are not the same in kind with us, why should all men be found following Yi Ya in their relishes? In the matter of tastes all the people model themselves after Yi Ya; that is, the mouths of all men are like one another. And so also it is with the ear. In the matter of sounds, the whole people model themselves after the music-master Kuang; that is, the ears of all men are like one another. And so also it is with the eye. In the case of Zi Du, there is no man but would recognise that he was beautiful. Any one who would not recognise the beauty of Zi Du must have no eyes. Therefore I say, Men's mouths agree in having the same relishes; their ears agree in enjoying the same sounds; their eyes agree in recognising the same beauty - shall their minds alone be without that which the similarly approve? What is it then of which they similarly approve? It is, I say, the principles of our nature, and the determinations of righteousness. The sages only apprehended before me that of which my mind approves along with other men. Therefore the principles of our nature and the determinations of righteousness are agreeable to my mind, just as the flesh of grass and grain-fed animals is agreeable to my mouth.' "