== 맹자1 영문(孟子1 英文) ==
[Mencius]
149. 公孫丑上 2
曰:「宰我、子貢、有若智足以知聖人。汙,不至阿其所好。宰我曰:『以予觀於夫子,賢於堯舜遠矣。』子貢曰:『見其禮而知其政,聞其樂而知其德。由百世之後,等百世之王,莫之能違也。自生民以來,未有夫子也。』有若曰:『豈惟民哉?麒麟之於走獸,鳳凰之於飛鳥,太山之於丘垤,河海之於行潦,類也。聖人之於民,亦類也。出於其類,拔乎其萃,自生民以來,未有盛於孔子也。』」
"Mencius replied, 'Zai Wo, Zi Gong, and You Ruo had wisdom sufficient to know the sage. Even had they been ranking themselves low, they would not have demeaned themselves to flatter their favourite. Now, Zai Wo said, ""According to my view of our Master, he was far superior to Yao and Shun."" Zi Gong said, ""By viewing the ceremonial ordinances of a prince, we know the character of his government. By hearing his music, we know the character of his virtue. After the lapse of a hundred ages I can arrange, according to their merits, the kings of a hundred ages - not one of them can escape me. From the birth of mankind till now, there has never been another like our Master."" You Ruo said, ""Is it only among men that it is so? There is the Qi-lin among quadrupeds, the Feng-huang among birds, the Tai mountain among mounds and ant-hills, and rivers and seas among rain-pools. Though different in degree, they are the same in kind. So the sages among mankind are also the same in kind. But they stand out from their fellows, and rise above the level, and from the birth of mankind till now, there never has been one so complete as Confucius.""' "

== 맹자1 영문(孟子1 英文) ==
[Mencius]
150. 公孫丑上 3
孟子曰:「以力假仁者霸,霸必有大國,以德行仁者王,王不待大。湯以七十里,文王以百里。以力服人者,非心服也,力不贍也;以德服人者,中心悅而誠服也,如七十子之服孔子也。《詩》云:『自西自東,自南自北,無思不服。』此之謂也。」
"Mencius said, 'He who, using force, makes a pretence to benevolence is the leader of the princes. A leader of the princes requires a large kingdom. He who, using virtue, practises benevolence is the sovereign of the kingdom. To become the sovereign of the kingdom, a prince need not wait for a large kingdom. Tang did it with only seventy li, and king Wen with only a hundred. When one by force subdues men, they do not submit to him in heart. They submit, because their strength is not adequate to resist. When one subdues men by virtue, in their hearts' core they are pleased, and sincerely submit, as was the case with the seventy disciples in their submission to Confucius. What is said in the Book of Poetry, ""From the west, from the east, From the south, from the north, There was not one who thought of refusing submission,"" is an illustration of this.' "

== 맹자1 영문(孟子1 英文) ==
[Mencius]
151. 公孫丑上 4
孟子曰:「仁則榮,不仁則辱。今惡辱而居不仁,是猶惡溼而居下也。如惡之,莫如貴德而尊士,賢者在位,能者在職。國家閒暇,及是時明其政刑。雖大國,必畏之矣。《詩》云:『迨天之未陰雨,徹彼桑土,綢繆牖戶。今此下民,或敢侮予?』孔子曰:『為此詩者,其知道乎!能治其國家,誰敢侮之?』今國家閒暇,及是時般樂怠敖,是自求禍也。禍褔無不自己求之者。《詩》云:『永言配命,自求多褔。』《太甲》曰:『天作孽,猶可違;自作孽,不可活。』此之謂也。」
"Mencius said, 'Benevolence brings glory to a prince, and the opposite of it brings disgrace. For the princes of the present day to hate disgrace and yet to live complacently doing what is not benevolent, is like hating moisture and yet living in a low situation. If a prince hates disgrace, the best course for him to pursue, is to esteem virtue and honour virtuous scholars, giving the worthiest among them places of dignity, and the able offices of trust. When throughout his kingdom there is leisure and rest from external troubles, let him, taking advantage of such a season, clearly digest the principles of his government with its legal sanctions, and then even great kingdoms will be constrained to stand in awe of him. It is said in the Book of Poetry, ""Before the heavens were dark with rain, I gathered the bark from the roots of the mulberry trees, And wove it closely to form the window and door of my nest; Now, I thought, ye people below, Perhaps ye will not dare to insult me."" Confucius said, ""Did not he who made this ode understand the way of governing?"" If a prince is able rightly to govern his kingdom, who will dare to insult him? But now the princes take advantage of the time when throughout their kingdoms there is leisure and rest from external troubles, to abandon themselves to pleasure and indolent indifference - they in fact seek for calamities for themselves. Calamity and happiness in all cases are men's own seeking. This is illustrated by what is said in the Book of Poetry - Be always studious to be in harmony with the ordinances of God, So you will certainly get for yourself much happiness;"" and by the passage of the Tai Jia, ""When Heaven sends down calamities, it is still possible to escape from them; when we occasion the calamities ourselves, it is not possible any longer to live.""' "

== 맹자1 영문(孟子1 英文) ==
[Mencius]
152. 公孫丑上 5
孟子曰:「尊賢使能,俊傑在位,則天下之士皆悅而願立於其朝矣。市廛而不征,法而不廛,則天下之商皆悅而願藏於其市矣。關譏而不征,則天下之旅皆悅而願出於其路矣。耕者助而不稅,則天下之農皆悅而願耕於其野矣。廛無夫里之布,則天下之民皆悅而願為之氓矣。信能行此五者,則鄰國之民仰之若父母矣。率其子弟,攻其父母,自生民以來,未有能濟者也。如此,則無敵於天下。無敵於天下者,天吏也。然而不王者,未之有也。」
"Mencius said, 'If a ruler give honour to men of talents and virtue and employ the able, so that offices shall all be filled by individuals of distinction and mark - then all the scholars of the kingdom will be pleased, and wish to stand in his court. If, in the market-place of his capital, he levy a ground-rent on the shops but do not tax the goods, or enforce the proper regulations without levying a ground-rent - then all the traders of the kingdom will be pleased, and wish to store their goods in his market-place. If, at his frontier-passes, there be an inspection of persons, but no taxes charged on goods or other articles, then all the travellers of the kingdom will be pleased, and wish to make their tours on his roads. If he require that the husbandmen give their mutual aid to cultivate the public feld, and exact no other taxes from them - then all the husbandmen of the kingdom will be pleased, and wish to plough in his fields. If from the occupiers of the shops in his market-place he do not exact the fine of the individual idler, or of the hamlet's quota of cloth, then all the people of the kingdom will be pleased, and wish to come and be his people. If a ruler can truly practise these five things, then the people in the neighbouring kingdoms will look up to him as a parent. From the first birth of mankind till now, never has any one led children to attack their parent, and succeeded in his design. Thus, such a ruler will not have an enemy in all the kingdom, and he who has no enemy in the kingdom is the minister of Heaven. Never has there been a ruler in such a case who did not attain to the royal dignity.' "

== 맹자1 영문(孟子1 英文) ==
[Mencius]
153. 公孫丑上 6
孟子曰:「人皆有不忍人之心。先王有不忍人之心,斯有不忍人之政矣。以不忍人之心,行不忍人之政,治天下可運之掌上。所以謂人皆有不忍人之心者,今人乍見孺子將入於井,皆有怵惕惻隱之心。非所以內交於孺子之父母也,非所以要譽於鄉黨朋友也,非惡其聲而然也。由是觀之,無惻隱之心,非人也;無羞惡之心,非人也;無辭讓之心,非人也;無是非之心,非人也。惻隱之心,仁之端也;羞惡之心,義之端也;辭讓之心,禮之端也;是非之心,智之端也。人之有是四端也,猶其有四體也。有是四端而自謂不能者,自賊者也;謂其君不能者,賊其君者也。凡有四端於我者,知皆擴而充之矣,若火之始然,泉之始達。苟能充之,足以保四海;苟不充之,不足以事父母。」
"Mencius said, 'All men have a mind which cannot bear to see the sufferings of others. 'The ancient kings had this commiserating mind, and they, as a matter of course, had likewise a commiserating government. When with a commiserating mind was practised a commiserating government, to rule the kingdom was as easy a matter as to make anything go round in the palm. When I say that all men have a mind which cannot bear to see the sufferings of others, my meaning may be illustrated thus: even now-a-days, if men suddenly see a child about to fall into a well, they will without exception experience a feeling of alarm and distress. They will feel so, not as a ground on which they may gain the favour of the child's parents, nor as a ground on which they may seek the praise of their neighbours and friends, nor from a dislike to the reputation of having been unmoved by such a thing. From this case we may perceive that the feeling of commiseration is essential to man, that the feeling of shame and dislike is essential to man, that the feeling of modesty and complaisance is essential to man, and that the feeling of approving and disapproving is essential to man. The feeling of commiseration is the principle of benevolence. The feeling of shame and dislike is the principle of righteousness. The feeling of modesty and complaisance is the principle of propriety. The feeling of approving and disapproving is the principle of knowledge. Men have these four principles just as they have their four limbs. When men, having these four principles, yet say of themselves that they cannot develop them, they play the thief with themselves, and he who says of his prince that he cannot develop them plays the thief with his prince. Since all men have these four principles in themselves, let them know to give them all their development and completion, and the issue will be like that of fire which has begun to burn, or that of a spring which has begun to find vent. Let them have their complete development, and they will suffice to love and protect all within the four seas. Let them be denied that development, and they will not suffice for a man to serve his parents with.' "

== 맹자1 영문(孟子1 英文) ==
[Mencius]
154. 公孫丑上 7
孟子曰:「矢人豈不仁於函人哉?矢人唯恐不傷人,函人唯恐傷人。巫匠亦然,故術不可不慎也。孔子曰:『里仁為美。擇不處仁,焉得智?』夫仁,天之尊爵也,人之安宅也。莫之禦而不仁,是不智也。不仁、不智、無禮、無義,人役也。人役而恥為役,由弓人而恥為弓,矢人而恥為矢也。如恥之,莫如為仁。仁者如射,射者正己而後發。發而不中,不怨勝己者,反求諸己而已矣。」
"Mencius said, 'Is the arrow-maker less benevolent than the maker of armour of defence? And yet, the arrow-maker's only fear is lest men should not be hurt, and the armour-maker's only fear is lest men should be hurt. So it is with the priest and the coffin-maker. The choice of a profession, therefore, is a thing in which great caution is required. Confucius said, ""It is virtuous manners which constitute the excellence of a neighbourhood. If a man, in selecting a residence, do not fix on one where such prevail, how can he be wise?"" Now, benevolence is the most honourable dignity conferred by Heaven, and the quiet home in which man should awell. Since no one can hinder us from being so, if yet we are not benevolent - this is being not wise. From the want of benevolence and the want of wisdom will ensue the entire absence of propriety and righteousness;-- he who is in such a case must be the servant of other men. To be the servant of men and yet ashamed of such servitude, is like a bowmaker's being ashamed to make bows, or an arrow-maker's being ashamed to make arrows. If he be ashamed of his case, his best course is to practise benevolence. The man who would be benevolent is like the archer. The archer adjusts himself and then shoots. If he misses, he does not murmur against those who surpass himself. He simply turns round and seeks the cause of his failure in himself.' "

== 맹자1 영문(孟子1 英文) ==
[Mencius]
155. 公孫丑上 8
孟子曰:「子路,人告之以有過則喜。禹聞善言則拜。大舜有大焉,善與人同。舍己從人,樂取於人以為善。自耕、稼、陶、漁以至為帝,無非取於人者。取諸人以為善,是與人為善者也。故君子莫大乎與人為善。」
"Mencius said, 'When any one told Zi Lu that he had a fault, he rejoiced. When Yu heard good words, he bowed to the speaker. The great Shun had a still greater delight in what was good. He regarded virtue as the common property of himself and others, giving up his own way to follow that of others, and delighting to learn from others to practise what was good. From the time when he ploughed and sowed, exercised the potter's art, and was a fisherman, to the time when he became emperor, he was continually learning from others. To take example from others to practise virtue, is to help them in the same practice. Therefore, there is no attribute of the superior man greater than his helping men to practise virtue.' "

== 맹자1 영문(孟子1 英文) ==
[Mencius]
156. 公孫丑上 9
孟子曰:「伯夷,非其君不事,非其友不友。不立於惡人之朝,不與惡人言。立於惡人之朝,與惡人言,如以朝衣朝冠坐於塗炭。推惡惡之心,思與鄉人立,其冠不正,望望然去之,若將浼焉。是故諸侯雖有善其辭命而至者,不受也。不受也者,是亦不屑就已。柳下惠,不羞汙君,不卑小官。進不隱賢,必以其道。遺佚而不怨,阨窮而不憫。故曰:『爾為爾,我為我,雖袒裼裸裎於我側,爾焉能浼我哉?』故由由然與之偕而不自失焉,援而止之而止。援而止之而止者,是亦不屑去已。」
"Mencius said, 'Bo Yi would not serve a prince whom he did not approve, nor associate with a friend whom he did not esteem. He would not stand in a bad prince's court, nor speak with a bad man. To stand in a bad prince's court, or to speak with a bad man, would have been to him the same as to sit with his court robes and court cap amid mire and ashes. Pursuing the examination of his dislike to what was evil, we find that he thought it necessary, if he happened to be standing with a villager whose cap was not rightly adjusted, to leave him with a high air, as if he were going to be defiled. Therefore, although some of the princes made application to him with very proper messages, he would not receive their gifts. He would not receive their gifts, counting it inconsistent with his purity to go to them. Hui of Liu Xia was not ashamed to serve an impure prince, nor did he think it low to be an inferior officer. When advanced to employment, he did not conceal his virtue, but made it a point to carry out his principles. When neglected and left without office, he did not murmur. When straitened by poverty, he did not grieve. Accordingly, he had a saying,""You are you, and I am I. Although you stand by my side with breast and aims bare, or with your body naked, how can you defile me?"" Therefore, self-possessed, he companied with men indifferently, at the same time not losing himself. When he wished to leave, if pressed to remain in office, he would remain. He would remain in office, when pressed to do so, not counting it required by his purity to go away.' "

== 맹자1 영문(孟子1 英文) ==
[Mencius]
157. 公孫丑上 9
孟子曰:「伯夷隘,柳下惠不恭。隘與不恭,君子不由也。」
"Mencius said, 'Bo Yi was narrow-minded, and Hui of Liu Xia was wanting in self-respect. The superior man will not manifest either narrow-mindedness, or the want of self-respect.' "

== 맹자1 영문(孟子1 英文) ==
[Mencius]
158. 公孫丑下 10
孟子曰:「天時不如地利,地利不如人和。三里之城,七里之郭,環而攻之而不勝。夫環而攻之,必有得天時者矣;然而不勝者,是天時不如地利也。城非不高也,池非不深也,兵革非不堅利也,米粟非不多也;委而去之,是地利不如人和也。故曰:域民不以封疆之界,固國不以山谿之險,威天下不以兵革之利。得道者多助,失道者寡助。寡助之至,親戚畔之;多助之至,天下順之。以天下之所順,攻親戚之所畔;故君子有不戰,戰必勝矣。」
"Mencius said, 'Opportunities of time vouchsafed by Heaven are not equal to advantages of situation afforded by the Earth, and advantages of situation afforded by the Earth are not equal to the union arising from the accord of Men. There is a city, with an inner wall of three li in circumference, and an outer wall of seven. The enemy surround and attack it, but they are not able to take it. Now, to surround and attack it, there must have been vouchsafed to them by Heaven the opportunity of time, and in such case their not taking it is because opportunities of time vouchsafed by Heaven are not equal to advantages of situation afforded by the Earth. There is a city, whose walls are distinguished for their height, and whose moats are distinguished for their depth, where the arms of its defenders, offensive and defensive, are distinguished for their strength and sharpness, and the stores of rice and other grain are very large. Yet it is obliged to be given up and abandoned. This is because advantages of situation afforded by the Earth are not equal to the union arising from the accord of Men. In accordance with these principles it is said, ""A people is bounded in, not by the limits of dykes and borders; a State is secured, not by the strengths of mountains and rivers; the kingdom is overawed, not by the sharpness and strength of arms."" He who finds the proper course has many to assist him. He who loses the proper course has few to assist him. When this - the being assisted by few - reaches its extreme point, his own relations revolt from the prince. When the being assisted by many reaches its highest point, the whole kingdom becomes obedient to the prince. When one to whom the whole kingdom is prepared to be obedient, attacks those from whom their own relations revolt, what must be the result? Therefore, the true ruler will prefer not to fight; but if he do fight, he must overcome.' "

== 맹자1 영문(孟子1 英文) ==
[Mencius]
159. 公孫丑下 11
孟子將朝王,王使人來曰:「寡人如就見者也,有寒疾,不可以風。朝將視朝,不識可使寡人得見乎?」對曰:「不幸而有疾,不能造朝。」
"As Mencius was about to go to court to see the king, the king sent a person to him with this message: 'I was wishing to come and see you. But I have got a cold, and may not expose myself to the wind. In the morning I will hold my court. I do not know whether you will give me the opportunity of seeing you then.' Mencius replied, 'Unfortunately, I am unwell, and not able to go to the court.' "

== 맹자1 영문(孟子1 英文) ==
[Mencius]
160. 公孫丑下 11
明日,出吊於東郭氏,公孫丑曰:「昔者辭以病,今日吊,或者不可乎!」曰:「昔者疾,今日愈,如之何不吊?」
"Next day, he went out to pay a visit of condolence to some one of the Dong Guo family, when Gong Sun Chou said to him, 'Yesterday, you declined going to the court on the ground of being unwell, and to-day you are going to pay a visit of condolence. May this not be regarded as improper?' 'Yesterday,' said Mencius, 'I was unwell; to-day, I am better - why should I not pay this visit?' "

== 맹자1 영문(孟子1 英文) ==
[Mencius]
161. 公孫丑下 11
王使人問疾,醫來。孟仲子對曰:「昔者有王命,有采薪之憂,不能造朝。今病小愈,趨造於朝,我不識能至否乎?」使數人要於路,曰:「請必無歸,而造於朝!」
"In the mean time, the king sent a messenger to inquire about his sickness, and also a physician. Meng Zhong replied to them, 'Yesterday, when the king's order came, he was feeling a little unwell, and could not go to the court. To-day he was a little better, and hastened to go to court. I do not know whether he can have reached it by this time or not.' Having said this, he sent several men to look for Mencius on the way, and say to him, 'I beg that, before you return home, you will go to the court.' "

== 맹자1 영문(孟子1 英文) ==
[Mencius]
162. 公孫丑下 11
不得已而之景丑氏宿焉。景子曰:「內則父子,外則君臣,人之大倫也。父子主恩,君臣主敬。丑見王之敬子也,未見所以敬王也。」
"On this, Mencius felt himself compelled to go to Jing Chou's, and there stop the night. Mr. Jing said to him, 'In the family, there is the relation of father and son; abroad, there is the relation of prince and minister. These are the two great relations among men. Between father and son the ruling principle is kindness. Between prince and minister the ruling principle is respect. I have seen the respect of the king to you, Sir, but I have not seen in what way you show respect to him.' "

== 맹자1 영문(孟子1 英文) ==
[Mencius]
163. 公孫丑下 11
曰:「惡!是何言也!齊人無以仁義與王言者,豈以仁義為不美也?其心曰『是何足與言仁義也』云爾,則不敬莫大乎是。我非堯舜之道,不敢以陳於王前,故齊人莫如我敬王也。」
"Mencius replied, 'Oh! what words are these? Among the people of Qi there is no one who speaks to the king about benevolence and righteousness. Are they thus silent because they do not think that benevolence and righteousness are admirable? No, but in their hearts they say, ""This man is not fit to be spoken with about benevolence and righteousness."" Thus they manifest a disrespect than which there can be none greater. I do not dare to set forth before the king any but the ways of Yao and Shun. There is therefore no man of Qi who respects the king so much as I do.' "