== 논어 영문1(論語 英文) ==
1. 學而 Xue er
[1-7] 子夏曰:賢賢易色、事父母、能竭其力、事君、能致其身、與朋友交、言而有信。雖曰未學、吾必謂之學矣。
[1:7] Zi Xia said: “If you can treat the worthy as worthy without strain, exert your utmost in serving your parents, devote your whole self in serving your prince, and be honest in speech when dealing with your friends. If you do this and someone says you are not learned (xue 學), I would say that you are definitely learned.”
[Comment] In the Confucian tradition, learning (xue) is more than intellectual, academic study, or the accumulation of facts (although this aspect is included). It is the process of manifesting one's ren by developing oneself in self-reflection through the various types of human relationships.
子夏しか曰く、賢けんを賢けんとして色いろに易かへ、父母ふぼに事つかへて能よく其力そのちからを竭つくし、君きみに事つかへて能よく其身そのみを致いたし、朋友ほういうと交まじはり、言いひて信しん有あらば、未いまだ學まなばずと曰いふと雖いへども、吾われは必かならず之これを學まなびたりと謂いはん。
Tzeu hia dit : « Celui qui, au lieu d’aimer les plaisirs, aime et recherche les hommes sages, qui aide ses parents de toutes ses forces, qui se dépense tout entier au service de son prince, qui avec ses amis parle sincèrement, quand même on me dirait qu’un tel homme n’a pas étudié, j’affirmerais qu’il a étudié. »

== 논어 영문1(論語 英文) ==
1. 學而 Xue er
[1-8] 子曰:君子不重、則不威。學則不固。主忠信。無友不如己者。過、則勿憚改。
[1:8] The Master said: “If the noble man lacks gravitas, then he will not inspire awe in others. If he is not learned, then he will not be on firm ground. He takes loyalty and good faith to be of primary importance, and has no friends who are not of equal (moral) caliber. When he makes a mistake, he doesn't hesitate to correct it.”
[Comment] The noble man still makes mistakes. The difference between him and other people is that he rectifies his errors as soon as he becomes aware of them.
子曰く、君子くんし重おもからざれば則ち威ゐあらず、學まなべば則ち固こならず、忠信ちうしんを主しゆとし、己おのれに如しかざるものを友ともとする無なかれ。過あやまたば則ち改あらたむるに憚はゞかる勿なかれ。
Le Maître dit : « Si un homme honorable manque de gravité, il ne sera pas respecté et sa connaissance ne sera pas solide. Qu’il mette au premier rang la loyauté et la sincérité ; qu’il ne lie pas amitié avec des hommes qui ne lui ressemblent pas ; s’il tombe dans un défaut, qu’il ait le courage de s’en corriger. »

== 논어 영문1(論語 英文) ==
1. 學而 Xue er
[1-9] 曾子曰:愼終、追遠、民德歸厚矣。
[1:9] Ceng Zi said: “When they are careful (about their parents) to the end and continue in reverence after (their parents) are long gone, the virtue of the people will return to its natural depth.”
曾子曰く、終をはりを愼つゝしみ遠とほきを追おへば、民たみの德とく厚あつきに歸きす。
Tseng tzeu dit : « Si le prince rend les derniers devoirs à ses parents avec un vrai zèle et honore par des offrandes ses ancêtres même éloignés, la Vertu fleurira parmi le peuple. »

== 논어 영문1(論語 英文) ==
1. 學而 Xue er
[1-10] 子禽問於子貢曰:夫子至於是邦也、必聞其政、求之與 抑與之與 。子貢曰:夫子溫、良、恭、儉、讓以得之。夫子之求之也、其諸異乎人之求之與
[1:10] Zi Qin asked Zi Gong: “When our teacher (Confucius) arrives in any country, he invariably finds out everything about its government. Does he seek this information? Or is it given to him?” Zi Gong said, “Our teacher gets it by being cordial, upright, courteous, frugal, and humble. His way of getting information is quite different from that of other men.”
[Comment] Confucian didn't need to dig around, or press people for information. People naturally opened up to him due to his warmth and honesty.
子禽しきん子貢しこうに問とうて曰く、夫子ふうし是邦このくにに至いたるや、必かならず其政そのまつりごとを聞きけり、之これを求もとめたるか、抑そもそも之れを與あたへたるか。子貢曰く、夫子は溫をん良りやう恭きよう儉けん讓じやう以て之れを得えたり、夫子の之れを求むるや、其それ諸これ人の之れを求むるに異ことなるか。
Tzeu k’in adressa cette question à Tzeu koung : « Quand notre Maître arrive dans une principauté, il reçoit toujours des renseignements sur l’administration de l’État. Est-ce lui qui les demande au prince, ou bien est-ce le prince qui les lui offre ? » Tzeu koung répondit : « Notre Maître les obtient non par des interrogations, mais par sa douceur, son calme, son respect, sa tenue modeste et sa déférence. Il a une manière d’interroger qui n’est pas celle des autres hommes. »

== 논어 영문1(論語 英文) ==
1. 學而 Xue er
[1-11] 子曰:父在、觀其志。父沒、觀其行。三年無改於父之道、可謂孝矣。
[1:11] The Master said: “When your father is alive, observe his will. When your father is dead observe his former actions. If, for three years you do not change from the ways of your father, you can be called a ‘real son’ (xiao; 孝).”
[Comment] In terms of the development of the character of the human being, the most fundamental practice is that of “filial piety,” the English translation of the Chinese xiao, which means to love, respect and take care of one's parents. Confucius believed that if people cultivated this innate tendency well, all other natural forms of human goodness would be positively affected by it.
子曰く、父在いませば其志こゝろざしを觀み、父沒ぼつすれば其行おこなひを觀みる、三年父の道みちを改あらたむる無なきは、孝かうと謂いふ可べし。
Le Maître dit : « Du vivant de son père, observez les intentions d’un homme. Après la mort de son père, observez sa conduite. Si, durant les trois ans de deuil, il ne dévie pas de la voie dictée par son père, on pourra dire qu’il pratique la piété filiale. »

== 논어 영문1(論語 英文) ==
1. 學而 Xue er
[1-12] 有子曰:禮之用、和爲貴。先王之道、斯爲美、小大由之。有所不行。知和而和、不以禮節之、亦不可行也。
[1:12] You Zi said: “In the actual practice of propriety, flexibility is important. This is what the ancient kings did so well— both the greater and the lesser used flexibility. Yet there are occasions when this does not apply: If you understand flexibility and use it, but don't structure yourself with propriety, things won't go well.”
[Comment] Propriety is the English rendition of the Chinese li 禮. This is a word that also has a wide range of meaning in Classical Chinese thought, and is difficult to translate in a single word. Its most basic meaning is that of “ritual” or “ceremony,” referring to all sorts of rituals that permeated early East Asian society. The most significant of course, would be wedding ceremonies and funerals. But there were also various agricultural rituals, coming-of-age rituals, coronations, etc. Confucius was an expert on the proper handling of all sorts of rituals. The term li however, has, in the Analects, a much broader meaning than ritual, since it can also refer to the many smaller “ritualized” behavior patterns involved in day-to-day human interactions. This would include proper speech and body language according to status, age, sex— thus, “manners.” In this sense, li means any action proper, or appropriate to the situation. For instance, in the modern context, I might go up and slap my friend on the back. But I certainly wouldn't to that to my professor, or to a student in my class whom I don't know very well. In the Analects, li, as a general category, is clearly defined in a relationship with ren, where ren is the inner, substantial goodness of the human being, and li is the functioning of ren in the manifest world. That is to say, li is reciprocity 恕, filial piety 孝, fraternal respect 弟, etc.
有子いうし曰く、禮れいの和わを用もつて貴たふとしと爲する、先王せんわうの道みち斯これを美びと爲なす。小大せうだい之これに由よれば、行おこなはれざる所ところあり、和わを知しりて和わすれども、禮れいを以もつて之れを節せつせざれば、亦また行おこなふ可べからざるなり。
Iou tzeu dit : « Dans l’usage des rites, le plus précieux est l’harmonie. C’est pour cette raison que les règles des anciens souverains sont excellentes. Toutes les actions, grandes ou petites, s’y conforment. Cependant, il est une chose qu’il faut éviter : cultiver l’harmonie pour elle-même, sans qu’elle soit réglée par les rites, ne peut se faire. »

== 논어 영문1(論語 英文) ==
1. 學而 Xue er
[1-13] 有子曰:信近於義、言可復也。恭近於禮、遠恥辱也。因不失其親、亦可宗也。
[1:13]You Zi said: “When your own trustworthiness is guided by fairness, your words can be followed. When your show of respect is guided by propriety, you will be far from shame and disgrace. If you have genuine affection within your family, you can become an ancestor.”
[Comment] Fairness is one way of rendering of the Chinese yi 義, which we also translate in this text as Justice, according to the context. Although not quite as essential a concept as ren 仁, it is a strongly internalized human capacity. Being attuned to fairness allows people to do the proper thing in the proper situation, to give each person, place and thing its proper due. In the Analects and other Confucian texts, 義 has the specific connotations of fairness, or justice delivered in a situation when a person is in a position of power or authority. Thus, one of the greatest qualities to be possessed by teacher, a supervisor, a judge, a company owner, or the leader of any social circle is that of fairness, or justice, in treating those over whom he or she has power or influence.
有子いうし曰く、信しん、義ぎに近ちかければ、言げん復ふむべきなり、恭きよう、禮れいに近ければ、恥辱ちじよくに遠ざかる、因いん、其親そのしんを失うしなはざれば、亦また宗たつとぶべきなり。
Iou tzeu dit : « Toute promesse conforme à la justice peut être tenue. Tout respect ajusté aux rites éloigne honte et déshonneur. Si vous choisissez pour protecteur un homme digne de votre amitié et de votre confiance, vous pourrez lui rester attaché à jamais. »

== 논어 영문1(論語 英文) ==
1. 學而 Xue er
[1-14] 子曰:君子食無求飽、居無求安、敏於事而愼於言、就有道而正焉、可謂好學也已。
[1:14] The Master said: “When the noble man eats he does not try to stuff himself; at rest he does not seek perfect comfort; he is diligent in his work and careful in speech. He avails himself to people of the Way and thereby corrects himself. This is the kind of person of whom you can say, ‘he loves learning.’”
子曰く、君子くんし食しよくは飽あくことを求もとむる無なく、居きよは安やすきことを求むる無し、事ことに敏びんにして、而して言げんを愼つゝしみ、有道いうだうに就つきて正たださば、學がくを好このむと謂いふ可べきのみ。
Le Maître dit : « Un homme honorable qui ne recherche pas la satisfaction de son appétit dans la nourriture, ni ses commodités dans son habitation, qui est diligent en affaires et circonspect dans ses paroles, qui se rectifie auprès des hommes vertueux, celui-là a un véritable désir d’apprendre. »

== 논어 영문1(論語 英文) ==
1. 學而 Xue er
[1-15] 子貢曰:貧而無諂、富而無驕、何如 。 子曰:可也。未若貧而樂、富而好禮者也。子貢曰:詩云。如切如磋、如琢如磨』、其斯之謂與 子曰:賜也、始可與言詩已矣、吿諸往而知來者。
[1:15] Zi Gong asked: “What do you think of a poor man who doesn't grovel or a rich man who isn't proud?” Confucius said, “They are good, but not as good as a poor man who is satisfied and a rich man who loves propriety.” Zi Gong said, “The Book of Odes says: Like cutting and filing, Grinding and polishing.” “Is this what you are talking about?” Confucius said, “Ah, now I can begin to discuss the Book of Odes with Ci. I speak of various things, and he knows what is to be brought back. ”
子貢しこう曰く、貧ひんにして諂へつらふこと無なく、富とんで驕おごる無なきは如何いかん。子曰く、可かなり、未だ貧ひんにして樂たのしみ、富とみて禮れいを好このむ者ものに若しかざるなり。子貢曰く、詩しに云いふ、切せつするが如ごとく磋さするが如ごとく、琢たくするが如ごとく磨まするが如ごとしとは、其それ斯これの謂いひか。子曰く、賜しや、始はじめて興ともに詩しを言いふ可べきのみ、諸これに往わうを吿つげて、而しかうして來らいを知しる者なり。
Tzeu koung dit : « Que faut-il penser de celui qui, étant pauvre, n’est pas flatteur, ou qui, étant riche, n’est pas orgueilleux ? » Le Maître répondit : « Il est louable ; mais celui-là l’est encore plus qui, dans la pauvreté, vit content, ou qui, au milieu des richesses, reste courtois. » Tzeu koung répliqua : « On lit dans le Livre des Odes : “Coupez et limez, taillez et polissez.” Ces paroles n’ont-elles pas le même sens [2] ? » Le Maître repartit : « Seu [3], je peux enfin parler avec toi du Livre des Odes ! À ma réponse à ta question, tu as aussitôt compris le sens des vers que tu as cités. »

== 논어 영문1(論語 英文) ==
1. 學而 Xue er
[1-16] 子曰:不患人之不己知、患不知人也。
[1:16] The Master said: “I am not bothered by the fact that I am unknown. I am bothered when I do not know others.”
子曰く、人の己おのれを知らざるを患うれへず、人を知らざるを患ふるなり。
Le Maître dit : « Ne vous affligez pas de ce que les hommes ne vous connaissent pas ; affligez-vous de ne pas connaître les hommes. »

== 논어 영문1(論語 英文) ==
2. 爲政 Wei zheng
[2-1] 子曰:爲政以德、譬如北辰居其所而衆星共之。
[2:1] The Master said: “If you govern with the power of your virtue, you will be like the North Star. It just stays in its place while all the other stars position themselves around it.”
[Comment] This is the Analects' first statement on government. Scholars of Chinese thought have commonly placed great emphasis on a supposed radical distinction between Confucian “authoritative” government and Daoist “laissez-faire” government. But numerous Confucian passages such as this which suggest of the ruler's governance by a mere attunement with an inner principle of goodness, without unnecessary external action, quite like the Daoist wu-wei are far more numerous than has been noted. This is one good reason for us to be careful when making the commonplace Confucian/Daoist generalizations without qualification.
子曰く、政まつりごとを爲なすに德とくを以もつてせば、譬たとへば北辰ほくしん其所そのところに居ゐて衆星しうせい之に共むかふが如ごときなり。
Le Maître dit : « Celui qui gouverne un peuple par la Vertu est comme l’étoile polaire qui demeure immobile, pendant que toutes les autres étoiles se meuvent autour d’elle. »

== 논어 영문1(論語 英文) ==
2. 爲政 Wei zheng
[2-2] 子曰:詩三百、一言以蔽之、曰:思無邪』 。
[2:2] The Master said: “The 300 verses of the Book of Odes can be summed up in a single phrase: ‘Don't think in an evil way.’”
子曰く、詩し三百さんびやく、一言いちげん以もつて之これを蔽おほへば、曰く思おもひ邪よこしま無なし。
Le Maître dit : « Les Odes sont au nombre de trois cents. Un seul mot les résume toutes : penser sans dévier. »

== 논어 영문1(論語 英文) ==
2. 爲政 Wei zheng
[2-3] 子曰:道之以政、齊之以刑、民免而無恥。道之以德、齊之以禮、有恥且格。
[2:3] The Master said: “If you govern the people legalistically and control them by punishment, they will avoid crime, but have no personal sense of shame. If you govern them by means of virtue and control them with propriety, they will gain their own sense of shame, and thus correct themselves.”
子曰く、之これを道みちびくに政まつりごとを以もつてし、之これを齊ひとしくするに刑けいを以てすれば、民免まぬかれて恥はづる無なし。之れを道みちびくに德とくを以てし、之れを齊しくするに禮れいを以てすれば、恥はづる有ありて且かつ格ただす。
Le Maître dit : « Si le prince conduit le peuple au moyen des lois et le retient dans l’unité au moyen des châtiments, le peuple s’abstient de mal faire ; mais il ne connaît aucune honte. Si le prince dirige le peuple par la Vertu et fait régner l’union grâce aux rites, le peuple a honte de mal faire, et devient vertueux. »

== 논어 영문1(論語 英文) ==
2. 爲政 Wei zheng
[2-4] 子曰:吾十有五而志于學、三十而立、四十而不惑、五十而知天命、六十而耳順、七十而從心所欲、不踰矩。
[2:4] The Master said: “At fifteen my heart was set on learning; at thirty I stood firm; at forty I was unperturbed; at fifty I knew the mandate of heaven; at sixty my ear was obedient; at seventy I could follow my heart's desire without transgressing the norm.”
子曰く、吾われ十有五じふいうごにして學がくに志こゝろざし、三十にして立たち、四十にして惑まどはず、五十にして天命てんめいを知り、六十にして耳みゝ順したがふ、七十にして心こゝろの欲ほつする所ところに從したがへども、矩のりを踰こえず。
Le Maître dit : « À quinze ans, ma volonté était tendue vers l’étude ; à trente ans, je m’y perfectionnais ; à quarante ans, je n’éprouvais plus d’incertitudes ; à cinquante ans, je connaissais le décret céleste ; à soixante ans, je comprenais, sans avoir besoin d’y réfléchir, tout ce que mon oreille entendait ; à soixante-dix ans, en suivant les désirs de mon cœur, je ne transgressais aucune règle. »

== 논어 영문1(論語 英文) ==
2. 爲政 Wei zheng
[2-5] 孟懿子問孝。子曰:無違。樊遲御、子吿之曰:孟孫問孝於我、我對曰:無違。樊遲曰:何謂也 子曰:生、事之以禮; 死、葬之以禮、祭之以禮。
[2:5] Mengyi Zi asked about the meaning of filial piety. Confucius said, “It means ‘not diverging (from your parents).’” Later, when Fan Chi was driving him, Confucius told Fan Chi, “Mengsun asked me about the meaning of filial piety, and I told him ‘not diverging.’” Fan Chi said, “What did you mean by that?” Confucius said, “When your parents are alive, serve them with propriety; when they die, bury them with propriety, and then worship them with propriety.”
孟懿子まういし孝かうを問とふ、子曰く、違たがふ無なかれ。樊遲はんち御ぎよたり、子し之これに吿つげて曰く、孟孫まうそん孝かうを我われに問とふ、我われ對こたへて曰く違たがふ無なかれと。樊遲曰く、何なんの謂いひぞや。子曰く、生いけるには之れに事つかふるに禮れいを以もつてし、死しせるには之れを葬ほうむるに禮れいを以てし、之れを祭まつるに禮を以てす。
Meng I tzeu ayant interrogé sur la piété filiale, le Maître répondit : « Elle consiste à ne pas contrevenir. » Ensuite, alors que Fan Tch’eu [4] conduisait le char de Confucius, ce dernier lui dit : « Meng I tzeu m’a interrogé sur la piété filiale ; je lui ai répondu qu’elle consiste à ne pas contrevenir. » Fan Tch’eu dit : « Quel est le sens de cette réponse ? » Confucius répondit : « Un fils doit aider ses parents durant leur vie selon les rites, leur faire des obsèques et des offrandes après leur mort selon les rites. »